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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Review & Key Terms.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Derek Quinlan

CHAPTER 11 – Motivation & Emotion Review - Motivation is a process that influences the direction, vigour, and persistence of behaviour. Evolutionary psychologists propose that in our ancestral past, motivational tendencies that had adaptive significance were more likely to be passed from one generation to the next, eventually involving into genetically based predispositions to act in certain ways. - Homeostatic models view motivation as an attempt to maintain equilibrium in bodily systems. Drive theories propose that tissue deficits create drives, such as hunger, that motivate or ―push‖ an organism from within to reduce the deficit and restore homeostasis. - Incentive theories emphasize the role of environmental factors that ―pull‖ people toward a goal. The cognitive Expectancy x Value Theory explains why the same incentive may motivate some people but not others. - Psychodynamic theories emphasize that unconscious motives and mental processes guide much of our behaviour. Humanist Abraham Maslow proposed that needs exist in a hierarchy, from basic biological needs to the ultimate need for self-actualization. - Self-determination theory focuses on three psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. - The body monitors several chemicals involved in energy utilization. Changing patterns of glucose usage provide one signal that helps to initiate hunger. Upon eating, hormones such as CCK are released into the bloodstream and signal the brain to stop eating. Fat cells release leptin, which acts as a long-term signal that helps to regulate appetite. The hypothalamus and other brain regions play a role in hunger regulation. - The expected good taste of food motivates eating, and the thought of food can trigger hunger. Our memory, attitudes, habits, and psychological needs affect our food intake. - The availability, taste, and variety of food powerfully regulate eating. Through classical conditioning, neutral stimuli can acquire the capacity to trigger hunger. Cultural norms affect our food preferences and eating habits.- Heredity and the environment affect our susceptibility to becoming obese. Homeostatic mechanisms make it difficult to lose substantial weight. - The last half-century has witnessed changing patterns of sexual activity, such as an increase in premarital sex. - During sexual intercourse, people often experience a 4-stage physiological response pattern consisting of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. - Sex hormones have organizational effects that guide the prenatal development of internal and external organs along either a male or female pattern. Sex hormones also have activational effects that influence sexual desire. - Sexual fantasy can trigger arousal, whereas stress and psychological difficulties can interfere with sexual arousal. Cultural norms determine the sexual practices and beliefs that are considered moral, proper, and desirable. - Environmental stimuli affect sexual desire. Viewing sexual violence reinforces men’s belief in ―rape myths‖ and increases men’s aggression toward women, at least temporarily. - Sexual orientation involves dimensions of self-identity, sexual attraction, and actual sexual behaviour. No single biological, social, or psychological factor—and no specific combination of causes—has been clearly identified as the cause of sexual orientation. - People who have high motivation for success are attracted to the thrill of victory. They value mastery and social comparison. People who have a high fear of failure experience anxiety in achievement settings. They are motivated by social comparison and a fear of performing poorly. - High-need achievers seek moderately difficult tasks that are challenging but attainable. Low-need achievers are more likely to choose easy tasks in which success is assured or very difficult tasks in which success is not expected. Child-rearing and cultural factors influence our level and expression of achievement motivation. - Motivational goals may conflict with one another. Approach-approach conflicts occur when a person has to select between two attractive alternatives. Avoidance-avoidance goals involve choosing between two undesirable alternatives. - Approach-avoidance conflicts occur when we are attracted to, and repelled by, the same goal. As we approach the goal, the avoidance tendency usually increases in strength more rapidly than the approach tendency. - An emotion is a positive or negative feeling (or affective state) consisting of a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioural reactions to events that have relevance to important goals or motives. Negative emotional responses are a central feature of the stress response. - Emotions further our well being in several ways: by rousing us to action, by helping us communicate with others, and by eliciting empathy and help. Negative emotions narrow attention and behaviours, whereas positive thoughts tend to broaden our thinking and behaviour. - The primary components of emotion are the eliciting stimuli, cognitive appraisals, physiological arousal, and expressive and instrumental behaviours. Individual differences in personality and motivation affect the experience and expression of emotion, as do cultural factors. - Although innate factors can affect the eliciting properties of certain stimuli, learning can also play an important role in determining the arousal properties of stimuli. - The cognitive component of emotional experience involves the evaluative and personal appraisal of the eliciting stimuli. The ability of thoughts to elicit emotional arousal has been demonstrated clinically and in experimental research. Cross-cultural research indicates considerable agreement across cultures in the appraisals that evoke basic emotions but also some degree of variation in more complex appraisals. - Our physiological responses in emotion are produced by the hypothalamus, the limbic system, and the cortex, and by the autonomic and endocrine systems. There appear to be two systems for emotional behaviour, one involving conscious processing by the cortex, the other unconscious processing by the amygdala. - Recent studies suggest that negative emotions reflect greater relative activation of the right hemisphere, whereas positive emotions are related to relatively greater activation in the left hemisphere. - The validity of the polygraph as a ―lie detector‖ has been questioned largely because o
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