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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Review & Key Terms.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Derek Quinlan

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CHAPTER 12 – Development Over The Lifespan Review - Developmental psychology studies the process of aging. Questions about the influence of nature and nurture, the existence of critical and sensitive periods, continuity versus discontinuity, and stability versus change have played a major role in guiding much developmental research. - Cross-sectional designs compare people of different age groups at a single point in time. A longitudinal design repeatedly tests the same age group, as it grows older. A sequential design tests several groups at one point in time and then again when they are older. - Prenatal development involves the zygote, embryonic, and fetal stages. - The 23 rd chromosome in a mother’s egg cell always is an X chromosome. If the 23rdchromosome in the father’s sperm cell is an X, the child will be genetically female (XX); if a Y, the child will be born genetically male (XY). Maternal malnutrition, stress, illness, drug use, and environmental toxins can cause abnormal prenatal development. - Behavioural responses and learning begin during the fetal stage. - Newborns have poor sensory acuity, but they can distinguish between different visual patterns, speech sounds, odours, and tastes. They display perceptual preferences, learn through classical and operant conditioning, and may have a primitive capacity for imitation. - Sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities have several different developmental functions. Most rapidly improve during the first year of life. Some newborn perceptual-motor responses temporarily decline during the first few months after birth and then recover during the first year of life. - The cephalocaudal principle reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction. The proximodistal principle states that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts. - Experience is critical for normal development; without pattern vision, visual acuity stalls at the newborn level but recovers to a large extent when vision is restored, although permanent deficits remain if the deprivation occurs during the sensitive/critical period. - According to Piaget, cognitive development depends on processes of assimilation and accommodation, and occurs in 4 stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational. - Although the general cognitive abilities associated with Piaget’s 4 stages occur in the same order across cultures, children acquire many cognitive skills at an earlier age than Piaget believed. Vygotsky emphasized that cognitive development occurs in a sociocultural context. Each child has a zone of proximal development, reflecting the difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from others. - Information-processing capacities improve with age. Older children search for information more systematically, process it more quickly, and display better memory. - Children begin to develop a theory of mind (beliefs about another person’s knowledge, feelings, intentions, etc.) around 3-4 years of age. - Erikson proposed that personality development proceeds through 8 major psychosocial stages. Each stage involves a major crisis, and the way we resolve it influences our ability to meet the challenges of the next stage. - Temperament reflects a biologically based pattern of reacting emotionally and behaviourally to the environment. Extreme temperamental styles in infancy and childhood can predict some aspects of functioning years later. - Infant-caretaker attachment develops in 3 phases, and infants experience periods of stranger and separation anxiety. Secure attachment is associated with better developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence than insecure attachment. For most children, daycare does not disrupt attachment. - Parenting styles vary along dimensions of warmth-hostility and restrictiveness-permissiveness. The children of authoritative parents generally display the best developmental outcomes. Gender identity begins to form early in childhood, and socialization influences children’s acquisition of sex-role stereotypes.- Divorce disrupts children’s psychological adjustment in the short term, and for some children and adolescents, is associated with a long-term pattern of maladjustment. - Kohlberg proposed that moral reasoning proceeds through 3 levels. Pre- conventional moral judgments are based on anticipated rewards and punishments. Conventional morality is based on conformity to social expectations, laws, and duties. Post-conventional moral judgments are based on well thought out moral principles. Critics argue that the model contains cultural and gender biases. - Moral behaviour is governed by many factors, including learning (rewards, punishments, and modeling), temperament, attachment, and emotional development. Activity in the prefrontal cortex has been related to moral behaviour. - In Western cultures, puberty marks the onset of adolescence. Hormones that steer puberty also can affect mood and behaviour. Generally, early maturation is a more positive experience for boys than it is for girls. - During adolescence, neural restructuring is especially prominent in the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system, regions that play a key role in planning and coordinating behaviours that satisfy motivational goals, emotional urges, and moral decisions. - Young adults are at the peak of their physical, sexual, and perceptual functioning in their 20s. - Declines in physical processes (perception, bone density, basic metabolic rate, flexibility, etc.) begin in the 30s, and become more pronounced in late adulthood, but an active lifestyle, good nutrition, and a positive attitude can offset many age-related declines. - Improvements in information-processing processes (speed, memory) foster increases in abstract reasoning during adolescence. However, many teens and adults continue to struggle on formal operational tasks; while some people frequently use abstract reasoning, others rarely do so. - Information-processing capacities decline steadily after reaching one’s 30s. However, longitudinal data show that many intellectual abilities do not begin to decline reliably until late adulthood. - Cross-sectional studies suggest that wisdom increases with age. - Erikson proposed that intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair are the main crises of early, middle, and late adulthood. - Young adolescents often show egocentrism in their social thinking. The search for identity is a key task of adolescence. With age, teens who have not experienced an identity crisis become more likely to do so, and most resolve it successfully. - During adolescence, peer relationships become more important and intimate. Most teens maintain good relations with their parents. - In North America, the most important criterion for a transition into adulthood is becoming a responsible, independent person. In traditional cultures, marriage is a common marker of this transition. - In general, married people tend to be happier and live longer. - Premarital cohabitation is associated with a higher risk of marital divor
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