Textbook Notes (363,559)
Canada (158,426)
Psychology (4,731)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Terry Biggs (193)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 17: Treatment of Psychological Disorders The Helping Relationship Relationship and techniques of a therapist are important to the success of the treatment In addition to psychologists and psychiatrists, a number of other professionals provide treatment psychiatric social workers, marriage and family counselors, pastoral counselors, and abuse counselors Psychodynamic Therapies Focuses on internal conflict and unconscious factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour The term psychoanalysis refers not only to Freuds theory of personality, but also to the specific approach to treatment that he developed Psychoanalysis The goal of psychoanalysis is to help clients achieve insight, the conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie their problems Free association the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship Dream interpretation psychoanalysts believe that dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wishes that the clients defenses keep in the unconscious during waking hours Resistance defensive manoeuvres that hinder that process of therapy sign that anxiety-arousing sensitive material is being approached Transference occurs when the client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he or she were an important figure from the clients past considered important as it brings out into the open repressed feelings and maladaptive behaviour patterns - Transference takes two basic forms: o Positive transference occurs when a client transfers feelings of intense affection, dependency or love to the analyst o Negative transference involves irrational expressions of anger, hatred, or disappointment Interpretation any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client with insight into his or her behaviour or dynamics confronts clients with something that they have not previously admitted into consciousness Brief Psychodynamic Therapies Brief psychodynamic therapies emphasize understanding the maladaptive influences of the past and relating them to current patterns of self-defeating behaviour Focuses on clients current life situations than on past childhood experience, and may teach the client specific interpersonal and emotion-control skills Brief psychodynamic therapy is called interpersonal therapy highly structured and focuses on the clients current interpersonal problems such as dealing with role disputes (e.g. marital conflict), adjusting to the loss of a relationship or to a changed relationship, and identifying and correcting deficits in social skills that make it difficult for the client to initiate or maintain satisfying relationships Humanistic Psychotherapies Humanistic theorists view humans as consciously controlling their actions and taking responsibility for their choices and behaviour; also believe that everyone possesses inner resources for self-healing and personal growth, and that disordered behaviour reflects a blocking of the natural growth process, which is brought about by distorted perceptions, lack of awareness of feelings or a negative self-image Therapists goal is to create an environment in which clients can engage in self-exploration and remove the barriers that block their natural tendencies toward personal growth barriers often result from childhood experiences that fostered unrealistic or maladaptive standards for self-worth In contrast to psychoanalytic therapy, humanistic approaches focus primarily on the present and future instead of the past Client-Centered Therapy Carl Rogers research and experience as a therapist identified three important therapist attributes: - Unconditional positive regard is communicated when therapists show clients that they genuinely care about and accept them, without judgment or evaluation; also communicates a sense of trust in clients ability to work through their problems - Empathy, the willingness and ability to view the world through the clients eyes; therapist senses the feelings and meanings experienced by the client and communicates this understanding to the client by reflecting back to the client - Genuineness, consistency between the way the therapist feels and the way he or she behaves; must be open enough to honestly express feelings, whether positive or negative Gestalt Therapy Gestalt refers to perceptual principles through which people actively organize stimulus elements into meaningful whole patterns Gestalt therapys goal is to bring patients into immediate awareness so that the client can be whole once again Often carried out in groups, and therapists have developed a variety of active and dramatic methods to help clients get in touch with their inner selves Cognitive Therapies Cognitive approaches focus on the role of irrational and self-defeating thought patterns therapists who employ this approach try to help clients discover and change the cognitions that underlie their problems Elliss Rational-Emotive Therapy Elliss theory of emotional disturbance and his rational-emotive therapy are embodied in his ABCD model: - A stands for the activating event that seems to trigger the emotion - B stands for the belief system that underlies the way in which a person appraises the event - C stands for the emotional and behavioural consequences of that appraisal - D is the key to changing maladaptive emotions and behaviours: disrupting, or challenging, an erroneous belief system Rational-emotive therapists introduce clients to common irrational ideas and then train them to ferret out the particular ideas that underlie their maladaptive emotional responsesBecks Cognitive Therapy Becks goal is to point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbance and to help clients identify and reprogram their overlearned automatic thought patterns In treating depressed clients, a first step is to help clients realize that their thoughts, not the situation, cause their maladaptive emotional reactions this realization sets the stage for identifying and changing maladaptive thoughts Self-instructional training a cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive self-instructions to oneself at crucial phases of the coping process Behaviour Therapies Practitioners of behavior therapy insisted that: - Behaviour disorders are learned in the same ways normal behaviours are - These maladaptive behaviours can be unlearned by application of principles derived from research on classical conditioning and operant conditioning Behaviorists demonstrated that these learning procedures could be applied to change the behaviours of schizophrenics, to effectively treat anxiety disorders and to modify many child and adult behaviour problems that seemed resistant to traditional therapy approaches Classical Conditioning Treatments Classical conditioning procedures have been used in two major ways: - Used to reduce, or decondition, anxiety responses - Been used in attempts to condition new anxiety responses to a particular class of stimuli The most commonly used classical conditioning procedures are exposure therapies, systematic desensitization, and aversion therapy Exposure: An Extinction Approach
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.