Appendix: Statistics in Psychology
- Descriptive Statistics:
o Descriptive statistics: summarize and describe the characteristics of a set of scores.
o Frequency distribution: shows how many participants received each score.
o Histogram: graph of frequency distribution.
- Measures if Central Tendency:
o Measures of central tendency describe a distribution in terms of a statistic that is in
some way "typical: of the samples as a whole.
o Mode: most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
o Mean: arithmetic average of a set of scores.
o Median: point that divides the distribution in half when the individual scores are
arranged from lowest to highest.
- Measures of Variability:
o Measures of variability provide information about the spread of scores in a distribution.
o Range: difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution.
o Variance: the average of the squared deviation score about the mean.
o Standard deviation: square r