Textbook Notes (369,137)
Canada (162,407)
Psychology (4,934)
Psychology 1000 (1,640)
Chapter 2

Psych 1000 Chapter 2 Review Notes.docx

4 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Chapter 2: Studying Behaviour Scientifically: - Gathering Evidence: Steps in The Scientific Process: o Two methods of studying behaviour:  Hindsight Understanding: common-sense.  Understanding through prediction control and understanding: scientific method. o The five steps, which reflect how a scientific inquiry often proceeds: 1. Step 1: Identify a Question of interest. 2. Gather Information and form hypothesis.  Hypothesis: a specific prediction about some phenomenon that often takes the form of an “if-then” statement. 3. Test Hypothesis by conducting research. 4. Analyze Data, Draw Tentative Conclusion, and Report Findings. 5. Build a Body of Knowledge (ex. Ask further questions, formulate a new hypothesis, and test it.)  Theory: a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another. - Understanding through Prediction, Control, and Theory Building: o Theory development is the strongest test of scientific understanding because good theories generate an integrated network of predictions. A good theory has several important characteristics:  It incorporates existing facts and observations within a single broad framework. In other words, it organizes information in a meaningful way.  It is testable. It generates new hypothesis and predictions whose accuracy can be evaluated by gathering new evidence.  The predictions made by the theory are supported by the findings of new research.  It conforms to the law of parsimony: if two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well, the simpler theory is the preferred one. - Defining and Measuring Variables: o Variable: any changing characteristic or factor that may vary. Such as, people's sex, height, hair colour, age, income, etc. o Operational definition defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it. Operational definitions translate abstract concepts into something observable and measurable. - Self Reports and Reports by Others: o Self-report measures ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or behaviour. o Social desirability bias: the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or behaves. - Measures of Overt Behaviour: o In an experiment meant on learning, we might measure how many errors a person makes while performing a task. In an experiment on drug effects, we might measure people's reaction time. o Reaction times: how rapidly people respond to a stimulus. o Observers must be trained to use coding system properly so that their measurements will be reliable - consistent observations. If two observers disagree on their coding, then the data is unreliable. o Humans and animals behave differently, when being observed. o Unobtrusive measures: to record behaviour in a way that keeps participants unaware that certain responses are being measured. o Psychologists also gather information about behaviour by using archival measures, which are records or documents that exist. - Psychological Tests: o Psychologists develop and use specialized tests to measure types of variables (ex, personality tests, intelligence tests, etc.) - Physiological Tests: o Psychologists also record physiological responses to assess what people are experiencing (ex. measures of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, hormonal secretions, and brain functioning). - Descriptive Research: Recording Events: o Descriptive research: seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in a natural setting. - Case Studies: Treating Cases of Failure to Thrive (Starvation) in Human Infants: o Case study: in-depth analysis of an individual, a group, or an event. o Case studies often suggest important ideas for further research, but they are a poor method for establishing cause-effect relations. - Naturalistic Observation: Bullying in Canadian Schoolyards: o In naturalistic observation, the researcher observes behaviour as it occurs in a natural setting, and attempts to avoid influencing that behaviour.
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.