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Chapter 8

Psych 1000 Chapter 8 Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 8 – Memory  Memory – processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory as Information Processing  Encoding – getting information into the system by translating into a neural code that your brain processes  Storage – retaining information over time  Retrieval – the process of accessing information in long term memory Three-Component Model  Three major components of memory: o Sensory memory – holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized  Composed of sensory registers:  Iconic store (visual sensory)  Echoic store (auditory sensory) – lasts longer than iconic o Short-Term/Working memory – type of memory that holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time  Working memory refers to fact that it consciously processes, codes, and works on information  Mental representations are how information is coded to be retained in short term memory  When reading words, information is stored as phonological codes  Short term memory can only hold limited information  Most people can hold no more than five to nine meaningful items  Chunking – combining individual items into larger units of meaning  Maintenance rehearsal – simple repetition of information  Elaborative rehearsal – involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know  Three components of working memory (according to Alan Baddeley):  Auditory working memory – repetition of information to self  Visual spatial working memory – temporary storage and manipulation of images and spatial information  Central executive – decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal o Long-Term memory – vast library of more durable stored memories  Serial position effect – recall of information is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items  When given a long list of words, the beginning and ending words are most remembered o Primacy effect – superior recall of early words  At first, brain rehearses beginning words, storing into long term memory  List gets longer, and short term memory fills up o Recency effect – superior recall of recent words  Last words remembered since they aren’t bumped out of short term memory by newer words Encoding: Entering Information  Effortful processing – encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention  Automatic processing – encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention Levels of Processing  Structural encoding – processing based on structure of information  Phonological encoding – processing based on sound  Semantic encoding – processing based on meaning  Levels of processing concept: the more deeply we process information, the better it is remembered o Semantic encoding involves most processing, since meaning must be focused on o Reason why elaborative rehearsal is more effective than maintenance rehearsal Organization and Imagery  Hierarchies and chunking o Takes advantage of principle that memory is enhanced by associations between concepts o Chunking widens information processing caused by limited capacity of short term memory (e.g. encoding phone number in sets of numbers)  Mnemonic devices o Mnemonic device is any type of memory aid (including hierarchies and chunking) o Does not reduce amount of information to encode, but provides extra cues to retrieve information  Visual imagery o Dual coding theory – encoding information using both codes (verbal and nonverbal) enhances memory  Odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available  Schema – an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world o Create a perpetual set Storage: Retaining Information Memory as a Network  Associative network – a massive network of associated ideas and concepts o Priming – activation of one concept by another (e.g. “fire engine” primes the node for “red”)  Neural network – each concept is represented by a part
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