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Chapter 10

Psych 1000 Chapter 10 Review Notes.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Wolfe/ Quinlan

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Chapter 10 – Intelligence Intelligence  Concept or construct that refers to the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective  Sir Francis Galton o Mental ability is inherited  Alfred Binet o Developed test to help identify children who require educational help at early age o Made two assumptions about intelligence:  Mental abilities develop with age  Rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time o Tests would result in score called mental age (age at which a child can solve problems for) o William Stern - Intelligence quotient: IQ = (Mental age / Actual age) x 100 o Problem is that increases in mental age begin to slow down dramatically around age 16  The Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Scales o Lewis Terman revised Binet’s test, creating the Stanford-Binet test o David Wechsler developed intelligence tests for adults (WAIS), children (WISC), and preschoolers (WPPSI)  Most widely used intelligence tests  Achievement test – designed to measure how much they have learnt in their lives  Aptitude test – measure potential for future learning and performance Scientific Standard for Psychological Tests  Psychological test – a method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept, or construct, based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed and controlled situation  Static testing – makes sure all subjects are responding to the same stimuli  Dynamic testing - standard test is followed up by an interaction with the examiner, in which they give feedback for improvement and examine how the subject responds to the information given  Reliability – consistency of measurement o Test-retest reliability – extent to which scores on a presumably stable characteristic are consistent over time o Internal consistency – within the measurements of the test itself (will be high when there is no confounding of variables) o Interjudge reliability – extent to which different observers or scorers agree in their scoring of a particular test or observed behaviour  Validity – how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure o Construct validity – extent to which a test measures the psychological construct (e.g. intelligence, anxiety) that it is purported to measure o Content validity – extent to which the test items adequately sample the domain that the test is supposed to measure o Criterion-related validity – ability of scores to correlate with meaningful criterion measures  Standardization and norms o Standardization – refers to (1) creating a standard set of procedures for administering a test or making observations, and (2) deriving norms to which an individual’s performance can be compared o Norms – test scores derived from a relevant sample used to evaluate individuals’ scores o Normal distribution (bell curve) of intelligence tests has an average of 100 The Nature of Intelligence  Psychometric Approach o Psychometrics – statistical study of psychological tests  Factor analysis – analysis of patterns of correlation between test scores in order to discover clusters of measures that correlate highly with one another but not with measures in other clusters (Example: if four tests were highly correlated with each other, and all required subjects to solve mathematical problems, the underlying factor may be mathematical reasoning ability) o The “g” factor  Concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by general intelligence (“g”) and partly by other special abilities required to perform a particular task  Example: performance in a mathematics course would depend mainly on the “g” factor of the individual, but also ability to learn mathematics o Intelligence as specific mental abilities  L. L. Thurstone concluded that human mental pe
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