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Chapter 11

Psych 1000 Chapter 11 Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 11 – Motivation and Emotion  Motivation – process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour Perspectives on Motivation  Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology o Instinct (fixed action pattern) – an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus  Homeostasis and Drive Theory o Homeostasis – a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain  Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from sensors o Drive theory – physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism that reduce this tension  Clark Hull proposes that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour  Flaws in theory found in certain behaviours, such as when people skip meals to diet (increases rather than decreases state of arousal)  Incentive and Expectancy Theories o Incentives – environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal o Expectancy x value theory – goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on the goal (incentive value)  Motivation = expectancy x incentive value o Extrinsic motivation – performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment o Intrinsic motivation – performing an activity for its own sake (enjoyment of the activity) o Overjustification hypothesis – giving people extreme rewards to perform activity that they intrinsically enjoy may overjustify that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation  Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories o Freud believed that most behaviour resulted from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control o Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth  Deficiency needs – concerned with physical and social survival  Growth needs – motivate us to develop our potential  Proposed concept of need hierarchy, a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top  -actualization (need to fulfill our potential, ultimate human motive)  Can only focus on needs of highest level if bottom levels are satisfied o Self-determination theory – focuses on 3 fundamental psychological needs  Competence – master challenges and skills  Autonomy – free choice without interference  Relatedness – forming meaningful bonds with others Hunger and Weight Regulation  The Physiology of Hunger o Metabolism – body’s rate of energy utilization o Many researchers believe in a set point, an internal physiological standard, around which body weight is regulated (if weight is altered, homeostatic mechanisms will return body close to original weight) o Body has long term signals that adjust appetite and metabolism:  Signals that start and terminate a meal  Hunger not triggered by empty stomach  Sensors in hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations o If glucose levels drop, liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose, producing a drop-rise glucose pattern  Humans display a temporary drop-rise glucose pattern prior to experiencing hunger  Walls of stomach and intestine stretch while eating, send nerve signals to brain to indicate fullness  Patients with removed stomachs can still experience satiety due to chemical signals o CCK (cholecystokinin) released into blood after eating, stimulates receptors that decrease eating  Signals that regulate general appetite and weight  Fat cells secrete leptin (hormone that decreases appetite) to regulate food intake and weight  Obese people have ample leptin in blood due to fat mass, but brain appears insensitive to signals  Brain mechanisms  Many parts of brain play a role in regulating hunger and eating o Lateral hypothalamus may influence the triggering of hunger o Ventromedial hypothalamus may influence the ending hunger  Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite  Psychological Aspects of Hunger o Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction o Beliefs about caloric content of food, and memory of when and how much we last ate also affect consumption o Objectification theory – Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects o Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate intake  Women overestimate how thin they must be to meet men’s standards, while men overestimated how bulky they must be  Obesity o Genes and environment  Heredity influences basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as fat or lean tissue  Genetic influences account for 40-70% of variation in body mass o Dieting and weight loss  Being fat alters body chemistry and energy expenditure, priming people to stay fat  Obese people have higher insulin levels, which convert glucose to fat  Eating Disorders o Anorexia nervosa – eating disorder involving a severely restricted food intake  Often perfectionists who strive to live up to lofty self-standards o Bulimia nervosa – eating disorder involving binge eating followed by a purging of the food  Often depressed and anxious, exhibit low impulse control, and lack a stable sense of personal identity and self-sufficiency Sexual Motivation  The Physiology of Sex o Sexual response cycle – four stage cycle experienced during sexual arousal  Excitement phase – arousal builds rapidly  Plateau phase – respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm  Orgasm phase – males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen, females: rhythmic contractions of the outer third vagina, surrounding muscles, and uterus  Resolution phase – physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissue return to normal condition  Refractory period (male only) – period where orgasm is temporarily incapable of occurring o Hypothalamus control pituitary gland, which regulates secretion of hormones called gonadotropins into bloodstream  Affect rate at which gonads secrete androgens (testosterone) and estrogens (estradiol)  Hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics  Hormones have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and beha
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