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Chapter 12

Psych 1000 Chapter 12 Review Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 12Development over the Life SpanMajor Issues and MethodsDevelopmental psychology examines changes in biological physical psychological and behavioural processes over ageFour issues guide developmental research o Nature and nurture heredity vs environment o Critical and sensitive periodsCritical periodan age range during which certain experiences must occur for normal developmentSensitive periodan optimal age range for certain experiences but no critical range o Continuity versus discontinuity gradual development vs distinct stages o Stability versus change do characteristics remain the sameFive developmental functions o No changean ability from birth remains constant over life span o Continuousan ability that develops gradually and then remains constant o Discontinuityan ability that progresses in stages o Inverted Ushaped functionan ability that peaks at a certain age then decreases o Ushaped functionan ability that disappears temporarilyDifferent designs used to research o Crosssectional designresearch design that compares people of different age groups at same point in timeDrawback in that different age groups cohorts grew up in different periods o Longitudinal designrepeatedly tests same cohort as it grows older o Sequential designcombination of other two which tests multiple cohorts over their livesPrenatal DevelopmentConsists of three stages o Germinal stagefirst two weeks zygote fertilized egg is formed o Embryonic stagesecond to eighth week zygote becomes embryo placenta and umbilical cord form organs form o Fetal stageafter nine weeks embryo becomes fetus bodily systems develop eyes open at 24 weeks attains age of viability at 28 weeksY chromosome contains TDF testisdetermining factor gene which initiates development of testes at around 68 weeksVarious environmental influences can affect development o Teratogensenvironmental agents that cause abnormal development o Fetal alcohol syndrome FASgroup of severe abnormalities due to prenatal exposure to alcoholInfancy and ChildhoodThe Amazing Newborn o Newborn sensation and perceptionVision is limited by poor acuity lack of coordinated eye movements and tunnel visionNewborns orient to significant stimuliPrefer patterned and more complex images o Newborn learningAfter repeated exposure to certain sound infants begin to stop turning to see source of sound but would turn towards new soundRapidly acquire classically conditioned responsesSensoryPerceptual Development o Visual field expands to almost adult size by six months acuity continues to develop afterwards o Sound localization disappears in second month of life returns after four or five months
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