Textbook Notes (368,552)
Canada (161,962)
Psychology (4,907)
Psychology 1000 (1,634)
Chapter 14

Psych 1000 Chapter 14 Review Notes.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 14 – Personality  Personality – the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations  Aspects of personality have three characteristics: o Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people o Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion, suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviour The Psychodynamic Perspective  Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory o Considered personality to be an energy system o Psychic energy – generated by instinctual drives, this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release  Example: Buildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity, or indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictions o Mental events are divided:  Conscious – events that we are presently aware of  Preconscious – memories, thoughts, feelings, images that we are unaware of at the moment, but can be recalled  Unconscious – dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond our awareness o Personality divided into three separate but interacting structures:  Id – primitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts  Operates according to the pleasure principle (seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations or reality)  People are born with this  Ego – executive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id, prohibitions of superego, and dictates of reality  Operates according to reality principle (tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulses)  Develops early in life  Superego – moral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of society  Rewards compliance with pride, and non-compliance with guilt  Develops around age 4-5 o Defense mechanisms – unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses  Repression – ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories from entering consciousness  Sublimination – completely masking the sinister underlying impulses through other forms (art, sports, etc.)  Denial – refusal to acknowledge situation  Displacement – finding a ‘safe target’ o Psychosexual stages – stages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain body parts  Erogenous zones – specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body  Oral (0-2), Anal (2-3), Phallic (4-6), Latency (7-puberty), Genital (puberty+)  Deprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation, in which instincts are focused on a particular theme  Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory o Neoanalyst – psychoanalysts that disagreed with parts of Freud’s theories o Alfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest (the desire to advance the welfare of others) o Carl Jung developed analytic psychology  Humans not only possess a personal unconscious of life experiences, but a collective unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of humanity  Memories are represented by archetypes, inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways o Object relations – the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers The Humanistic Perspective  Self-actualization – the total realization of one’s human potential  Carl Rogers’s Self Theory o Self – an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself  Must have self-consistency (absence of conflict among self-perceptions) and congruency (consistency between self-perceptions and experiences) to maintain self-concept  Experiences that are inconsistent with self-concept evokes threat and anxiety  Level of adjustment – the level of consistency between self-concept and experiences  Maladjustment – deny or distort reality to be consistent with self-concept  Health adjustment – experiences are easily incorporated into self-concept o People are born with a need for positive regard (acceptance, sympathy, and love)  Unconditional positive regard – communicates that the child is inheritably worth of love  Conditional positive regard – dependent on behaviour of the child  Need for positive self-regard develops because of the need to feel good about self  Lack of unconditional positive regard leafs to belief that they are worthy of love only when standards are met  Fosters development of conditions of worth that dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves o Fully functioning persons – self-actualized people who are free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity, and a desire to develop further  Research on the Self o Self-esteem – how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves  Children develop high self-esteem when parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions o Self-verification – a need to preserve self-concept by maintaining self-consistency and congruency o Self-enhancement – processes whereby one enhances positive self-regard o Gender schemas – organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for both genders o Humanistic theories – focus on the individual’s subjective experiences Trait and Biological Perspectives
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.