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Chapter 14

Psych 1000 Chapter 14 Review Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Wolfe/ Quinlan
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 14 – Personality  Personality – the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations  Aspects of personality have three characteristics: o Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people o Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion, suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviour The Psychodynamic Perspective  Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory o Considered personality to be an energy system o Psychic energy – generated by instinctual drives, this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release  Example: Buildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity, or indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictions o Mental events are divided:  Conscious – events that we are presently aware of  Preconscious – memories, thoughts, feelings, images that we are unaware of at the moment, but can be recalled  Unconscious – dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond our awareness o Personality divided into three separate but interacting structures:  Id – primitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts  Operates according to the pleasure principle (seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations or reality)  People are born with this  Ego – executive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id, prohibitions of superego, and dictates of reality  Operates according to reality principle (tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulses)  Develops early in life  Superego – moral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of society  Rewards compliance with pride, and non-compliance with guilt  Develops around age 4-5 o Defense mechanisms – unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses  Repression – ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories from entering consciousness  Sublimination – completely masking the sinister underlying impulses through other forms (art, sports, etc.)  Denial – refusal to acknowledge situation  Displacement – finding a ‘safe target’ o Psychosexual stages – stages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain body parts  Erogenous zones – specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body  Oral (0-2), Anal (2-3), Phallic (4-6), Latency (7-puberty), Genital (puberty+)  Deprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation, in which instincts are focused on a particular theme  Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory o Neoanalyst – psychoanalysts that disagreed with parts of Freud’s theories o Alfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest (the desire to advance the welfare of others) o Carl Jung developed analytic psychology  Humans not only possess a personal unconscious of life experiences, but a collective unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of humanity  Memories are represented by archetypes, inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways o Object relations – the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers The Humanistic Perspective  Self-actualization – the total realization of one’s human potential  Carl Rogers’s Self Theory o Self – an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself  Must have self-consistency (absence of conflict among self-perceptions) and congruency (consistency between self-perceptions and experiences) to maintain self-concept  Experiences that are inconsistent with self-concept evokes threat and anxiety  Level of adjustment – the level of consistency between self-concept and experiences  Maladjustment – deny or distort reality to be consistent with self-concept  Health adjustment – experiences are easily incorporated into self-concept o People are born with a need for positive regard (acceptance, sympathy, and love)  Unconditional positive regard – communicates that the child is inheritably worth of love  Conditional positive regard – dependent on behaviour of the child  Need for positive self-regard develops because of the need to feel good about self  Lack of unconditional positive regard leafs to belief that they are worthy of love only when standards are met  Fosters development of conditions of worth that dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves o Fully functioning persons – self-actualized people who are free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity, and a desire to develop further  Research on the Self o Self-esteem – how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves  Children develop high self-esteem when parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions o Self-verification – a need to preserve self-concept by maintaining self-consistency and congruency o Self-enhancement – processes whereby one enhances positive self-regard o Gender schemas – organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for both genders o Humanistic theories – focus on the individual’s subjective experiences Trait and Biological Perspectives
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