Textbook Notes (362,870)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (4,729)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Chapter 15

Psych 1000 Chapter 15 Review Notes.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 15 – Stress, Coping, and Health The Nature of Stress  Stress viewed as in three different ways (stimulus, response, and organism-environment interaction) o Stimulus (stressors) – situations that place demands on organisms that tax or exceed their resources o Stress – a pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, and behavioural tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources needed to cope with them  Stressors o Stressors range in severity  Microstressors – daily hassles and everyday annoyances we encounter  Catastrophic events – occur unexpectedly and affect many people, such as natural disasters, acts of war, etc.  Major negative events – victim of a crime or death in a family, etc. o Life event scales – questionnaires that measure the number of positive and negative life events that have occurred over a specific period of time  The Stress Response o Four aspects of appraisal process are of particular significance:  Primary – appraisal of demands of situation  Secondary – appraisal of resources available to cope with it  Judgments of what consequences of situation could be  Appraisal of personal meaning (what the outcome might imply about us)  Chronic Stress and the GAS o General adaptation syndrome (GAS) – a physiological response pattern to strong and prolonged stressors  Consists of three phases:  Alarm reaction – a rapid increase in physiological arousal o Occurs due to sudden activation of sympathetic nervous system and release of stress hormones o Cortisol – triggers increase in blood sugars and suppresses immune system  Resistance – body’s resources continue to be mobilized so that the person can function despite the presence of a stressor o Length of stage depends on severity of stress, individual’s health, available support, and other factors  Exhaustion – body’s resources are dangerously depleted o Occurs when stressor is intense and persists for too long Stress and Health  Stress and Psychological Well-Being o Studies of results of catastrophic events has found average increase of 17% in rates of psychological disorders o Rape trauma syndrome – a pattern of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural responses that occurs in rape victims o Neuroticism – a personality trait that involves the tendency to experience high levels of negative affect and to behave in self-defeating ways  People high in neuroticism have heightened tendency to experience negative emotions and to involved in stressful situations through maladaptive behaviours  Stress and Illness o Stress can combine with other physical and psychological factors to influence the entire spectrum of physical illness o Stress can trigger illness by causing a breakdown in immune system functioning o Stressors can release sufficient stress hormones to induce structural changes in the hippocampus that last for a month or longer Vulnerability and Protective Factors  Vulnerability factors – increase people’s susceptibility to stressful events (includes lack of a support network, poor coping skills, tendencies to become anxious, etc.)  Protective factors – environmental or personal resources that help people cope more effectively (includes social support, coping skills, and personality factors such as optimism)  Social Support o One of the most important environmental resources that people can have o Enhances immune system functioning o Discussing traumatic incidences can enhance immune system functioning  Cognitive Protective Factors: The Importance of Beliefs o Hardiness – a stress-resistant personality pattern that involves the factors of commitment, control, and challenge  Hardy people are committed to work, families, and believe what they are doing is important  View themselves as having control over outcomes (strongest stress buffer)  Appraise demands of situations as challenges or opportunities, rather than threats o Coping self-efficacy – beliefs relating to our ability to deal effectively with a stressful stimulus or situation o Optimistic people are at lowered risk for anxiety and depression when confronted with stress o Spiritual beliefs can help with coping, but some religions could have negative effects o Type A personality – live under great pressure and are demanding of self and others  High levels of stress and higher risk of diseases o Type B personality – relaxed and agreeable  Lower stress levels and lower risk of diseases  Physiological Reactivity o Physiological toughness – relations between two classes of hormones secreted by the adrenal glands in the face of stress  Catecholamines (which includes epinephrine and norepinephrine) and corticosteroids (cortisol) mobilize the body’s fight-or-flight response  Cortisol’s arousal affects last much longer, seem more damaging than those produced by catecholamines  Reduces immune system functioning and helps create fatty deposits in arteries that lead to disease  Catecholamines increase immune system functioning o Physiological toughness includes:  A low resting level of cortisol, low levels of cortisol secretion in response to stressors, and a quick return to baseline level of cortisol after stress is over  A low resting level of catecholamines, but a quick and strong catecholamine response when the stressor occurs, followed by a quick decline in catecholamine secretion and arousal when the stressor is over o Stress can cause an overproduction of PKC in the frontal cortex, leading to impairment in working memory o Fact that physical exercise entail catecholamine-produced arousal may help account for exercise’s health-enhancing effects Coping with Stress  Coping strategies when faced with a stressor can b
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.