Textbook Notes (368,214)
Canada (161,710)
Psychology (4,889)
Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Chapter 17

Psych 1000 Chapter 17 Review Notes.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 17 – Treatment of Psychological Disorders  Mental health professionals fall into several categories: o Counseling and clinical psychologists – typically hold a Ph.D. or Psy.D. o Psychiatrists – medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments o Psychiatric social workers, marriage/family counselors, pastoral counselors and abuse counselors Psychodynamic Therapies  Psychoanalysis o Goal is to help clients achieve insight (conscious awareness of psychodynamics that underlie their problems) o Free association – procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship  Freud sat out of sight from patient so thought processes would be determined by internal factors o Dream interpretation through free association of dream elements o Resistance – defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy o Transference - client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he were an important person from their past  Positive transference - client expresses intense affection, dependency, or love toward the analyst  Negative transference - client expresses anger, hatred, or disappointment toward the analyst o Interpretation – any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client with insight into their behaviour or dynamics  Brief Psychodynamic Therapies o Typically talk face-to-face, so conversation replaces free association o Clients seen a few times a week, rather than daily o Focus on current life situations, rather than on past childhood experiences o Interpersonal therapy – form of brief therapy that focuses on the client’s interpersonal problems and seeks to develop new interpersonal skills Humanistic Psychotherapies  Focus primarily on the present and future, rather than the past  Client-Centred Therapy o Most important part of therapy is relationship that develops between client and therapist o Three important and interrelated therapist attributes:  Unconditional positive regard – therapists show clients that they genuinely care about them and accept them, without judgment or evaluation  Empathy – willingness and ability to view the world through the client’s eyes  Therapist communicates understanding by reflecting back to client what they are communicating  Genuineness – therapist must honestly express his or her feelings, whether positive or negative  Gestalt Therapy o Term “gestalt” refers to perceptual principles through which people actively organize stimulus elements into meaningful “whole” patterns  Goals of therapy is to bring background figures into immediate awareness so that client can be “whole” again o Empty-chair technique involves the client role-playing, in which he/she may carry on a conversation with someone such as his mother, where he alternately plays his mother and himself Cognitive Therapies  Focus on the role of irrational and self-defeating thought patterns  Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy o Therapy is embodied in ABCD model:  Activating event – triggers the emotion  Belief system – underlies way in which a person appraises the activating event  Consequences – emotional and behavioural consequences of the appraisal  Disputing – challenging an erroneous belief system o People are accustomed to viewing emotions (consequences) as being caused directly by activating events  Emotions are actually caused by belief system, which must be countered and altered  Beck’s Cognitive Therapy o Goal is to point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbances and to reprogram client’s automatic negative thought patterns o Self-instructional training – cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive self-instructions to oneself at crucial phases of the coping process Behaviour Therapies  Classical Conditioning Treatments o Most direct way to reduce a phobia is through process of classical extinction of anxiety response  Requires exposure to feared CS in absence of UCS while using response prevention (prevention of escape or avoidance responses during exposure so that extinction can occur)  Client may be exposed to real-life stimuli (flooding) or may be asked to imagine scenes involving the stimuli (implosion) o Systematic desensitization – attempt to eliminate anxiety using counterconditioning, in which a new response that is incompatible with anxiety is conditioned to the anxiety-arousing CS  Client must construct a stimulus hierarchy (a series of anxiety-arousing stimuli that are ranked in terms of amount of anxiety they evoke)  Client must relax, and then focus on first level of hierarchy, then next, until finished  Client can’t experience anxiety if relaxed strongly enough  Relaxation replaces anxiety as the CR  In vivo desensitization – carefully controlled exposure to a hierarchy of real life situations o Aversion therapy – therapist pairs a stimulus that is attractive to a person (and that stimulates deviant or self-defeating behaviour – the CS) with a noxious UCS in an attempt to condition an aversion to the CS  Operant Conditioning Treatments o Behaviour modification – treatment techniques that involve the application of operant conditioning procedures in an attempt to increase or decrease a specific behaviour o Token economy – system for strengthening desired behaviours through the systematic application of positive reinforcement  Tokens rewarded upon observing desired behaviours, and are then traded in for various privileges o Therapists only use punishment after asking two important questions:  Are there alternative, less painful approaches that might be effective?  Is the behaviour to be eliminated sufficiently injurious to the individual or society to justify the severity of the punishment?  Modelling and Social Skills Training o Social skills training – clients learn new skills by observing and then imitating a model who performs a socially skillful behaviour “Third Wave” Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies  Mindfulness – mental state of awareness, focus, openness and acceptance of immediate experience o Involves a nonjudgmental appraisal, so difficult thoughts and feelings have much less impact  Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) – focuses on process of mindfulness as a vehicle for change  Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) – package of techniques from all areas of psychological treatments, used primarily to treat borderline personality disorder Cultural and Gender Issues in Psychotherapy  Cultural Factors in Treatment Utilization o Utilization of mental health services is far less for minority groups than it is for the majority white population  Cultural norm against turning to professionals outside of one’s own culture for help  Inability to afford therapy  Too few skilled counselors who can provide culturally responsive forms of treatment o Culturally competent the
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.