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Chapter 2

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Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 2: Research study - Hindsight approach – trying to understand after the fact it has happened - Scientist don’t like hindsight understanding because they want to predict the outcomes. Scientific Method 1. Identify or Observe 2. Hypothesis – make a prediction 3. Test – your hypothesis by doing research 4. Observe – your results 5. Revise – do further research 6. Make a possible theory or make a new hypothesis Theory – is a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another. - Good theories… - Are testable - Falisifiable - Predictions supported by new research - Confirms to the “Law of Parsimony” Law of Parsimony – two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well, the SIMPLER theory is thus the PREFERRED ONE. Variable – any change in characteristic or factor that can vary. Eg: sex, gender, height, age, GPA. Study settings, where?? Field study -behaviour is observed where it occurs disadvantages – not a controlled environment, bias view Lab Study - behavior observed in a controlled environment - you can vary certain situation to get different outcomes Data collection 1. Self report – asks people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences. - it can be done by questionnaires or surveys - Disadvantages – some ppl might exaggerate a situation and some ppl might tough it out. - Distorted by social desirability Social desirability bias – the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than giving an honest, personal opinion. Eg: questions on sex, illegal drugs and etc… 2. Observation – researchers record behaviors by observing - naturalistic observation or tests (eg: reaction time) - eg: some ppl might just be shaky all the time and might not be a sign of nervousness, just bad habit. - This can trick the observation. Design
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