Chapter 2: Research study
- Hindsight approach – trying to understand after the fact it has happened
- Scientist don’t like hindsight understanding because they want to predict the
1. Identify or Observe
2. Hypothesis – make a prediction
3. Test – your hypothesis by doing research
4. Observe – your results
5. Revise – do further research
6. Make a possible theory or make a new hypothesis
Theory – is a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are
related to one another.
- Good theories…
- Are testable
- Predictions supported by new research
- Confirms to the “Law of Parsimony”
Law of Parsimony – two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena
equally well, the SIMPLER theory is thus the PREFERRED ONE.
Variable – any change in characteristic or factor that can vary. Eg: sex, gender, height,
Study settings, where??
-behaviour is observed where it occurs
disadvantages – not a controlled environment, bias view
- behavior observed in a controlled environment
- you can vary certain situation to get different outcomes
1. Self report – asks people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings,
- it can be done by questionnaires or surveys
- Disadvantages – some ppl might exaggerate a situation and some ppl might tough
- Distorted by social desirability Social desirability bias – the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather
than giving an honest, personal opinion. Eg: questions on sex, illegal drugs and etc…
2. Observation – researchers record behaviors by observing
- naturalistic observation or tests (eg: reaction time)
- eg: some ppl might just be shaky all the time and might not be a sign of
nervousness, just bad habit.
- This can trick the observation.