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Psychology 1000
Nick Skinner

Intro to Psychology: Chapter One Empirical: Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation or measurement. Psychology: the discipline concerned with behaviour and mental process and how they are affected by an organism’s physical/mental state, and external environment. Psychobabble: Quackery of psychological and scientific-sounding language (pop culture of science)(pop- psych)  Media has twisted serious, research evidence psychology into popular opinion/ pop-psych.  Common sense= not reliable guides to human behaviour  Pyschobable confirms our existing beliefs and prejudices and psychology challenges them. Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psych. Critical Thinking: The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgements on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.  Opinions are equal to other but not if the ignore reality or do not have facts/info to back it up. (“I like a car instead of a truck” – “Cars are better” – “Cars are the best and trucks are actually animals”)  Using critical thinking you can determine the difference between psych. And psycho-babble  Critical-thinking guidelines o Ask Questions; be willing to wonder o Define your terms o Examine the evidence o Analyze assumptions and biases o Don’t oversimplify o Avoid emotional reasoning o Tolerate uncertainty consider other interpretations Psychology’s Past: from the armchair to the laboratory  Psych wasn’t a discipline until the 19 century  Early psych was based on anecdotes or descriptions of specific cases  Hippocrates (founder of modern medicine)  Locke – emotions are connected to experiences (notion still used today) Phrenology: now discredited, different areas of the brain account for specific character and personality traits (nonsense)  First psych lab established by Willhelm Wundt (Trained in medicine and philosophy) and first person to announce he intended to make psych a science  Focused on sensation, perception, reaction times, imagery and attention – avoided leaning, personality and abnormal behaviour  3 early Psychs o Structuralism: An early psychological approach that emphasize the analysis of immediate experiences into basic elemenst  Titcher gave Wundts approach the name Structuralism o Functionalism: an early psychological approach that empahsizes the function or purpose of behaviour and conciosuness.  William James and Darwin o Psychoanalysis: A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives a
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