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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 summary

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 8 Memory Chapter 8: Memory - Processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Memory as Information Processing - Encoding is getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that the brain can process - Storage involves retaining information over time - Once information is stored it must be filed away and saved - Retrieval involves pulling information out of storage when in need - We all occasionally forget and distort information and even at times remember things that never happened Three Component Model - Three major components of memory: sensory, short term and long term Sensory Memory - Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized - Different subsystems sensory registers are the initial information processors - Iconic store is our visual sensory register, but its very brief - Auditory sensory register is called the echoic store and the echoic memory lasts longer than the iconic Short-Term/Working Memory - Most information in sensory memory just fades away - Short-term memory holds information that we are conscious of at any given working memory Memory Codes - Information leaves sensory memory but must be represented by some type of code if its going to be retained in short or long term memory - Can take various forms o Visual encoding (mental image) o Phonological encoding (sound) o Semantic encoding (meaning of stimulus) o Motor coding (physical actions) Capacity and Duration - Limit on short term memory capacity concerns the number of meaningful units that can be recalled - Combining individual items into larger units of meaning is called chunking - Rehearsing information can extend the time it stays in our short term memory (maintenance rehearsal) - Focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know (elaborative rehearsal) 1 Chapter 8 Memory Putting Short Term Memory to Work - Items that remain on the short-term loading dock long enough eventually get transferred into the long-term memory - Maintain some of the information to the auditory working memory - The spatial working memory allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial information - Episodic buffer is the temporary storage where information from long term memory can be integrated and made available for conscious awareness - Central executive directs the action Long Term Memory - Vast library of more durable stored memories - Serial Position Effect o U-Shaped pattern where words at the beginning and end of the list are easiest for participants to recall o Recall is influenced by words position in a series of items o Primacy Effect (superior recall of early words) Due to transfer of early words into long-term memory o Recency Effect (superior recall of most recent words) Due to short term memory Encoding: Entering Information Effortful and Automatic Processing - Effortful processing is encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention - Automatic processing is encoding that occurs without intentions and requires minimal attention Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better - Structural encoding is when you notice only the way the word looks - Phonological encoding is when the word is sounded out and judged if it rhymes with another word - Semantic encoding is when you have to pay attention to the meaning - Levels of processing is a concept that states that more deeply we process information the better it will be remembered - Semantic coding usually involves the deepest meaning of information Exposure and Rehearsal - Rehearsal goes beyond exposure because we have to think about the info - Maintenance rehearsal involves simple repetition o Most useful for keeping information active in short-term memory - Elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of information and involves deeper processing than maintenance o Should be more effective in transferring information into long-term memory 2Chapter 8 Memory Organization and Imagery - Organizing a set of stimuli is a good way to enhance memory - Organization can enhance the meaningfulness of information and serve as a cue that helps to trigger our memory for the information it represents Hierarchies and Chunking - Hierarchy takes advantage of the principle that memory is enhanced by associations between concepts - Logical hierarchy enhances our understanding of how diverse elements are related - Chunking refers to combining individual items into larger units of meaning Mnemonic Devices - Mnemonic device is any type of memory aid o Hierarchy, chunking, acronyms - Recognize information into more meaningful units and provide extra cues to help retrieve information from long-term memory Visual Imagery - Dual coding theory (verbal and non-verbal codes) use both codes to enhance memory o At least one code will be able to suppor
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