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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Intelligence summary

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Prof
Semester
Fall

Description
Intelligence Socially constructed phenomenon or culture-specific Definition o Ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence In Historical Perspective Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability Showed eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families Eminent people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterparts biological basis Showing people who were more socially & occupationally successful would perform better on a variety of tasks measuring efficiency of the nervous system. Alfred Binets Mental Tests Modern intelligence-testing movement began at turn of the 20th century Alfred Binet was commissioned to develop a modern intelligence test Made two assumptions about intelligence: o Mental abilities develop with age o Rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of person and is fairly constant over time Result of the test was score called mental age Mental age concept expanded by Stern to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) o Ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100 Current tests don't use mental age Age 3 Point to object that serve various functions Goes on feet Age 4 Repeat a list of words or digits (car, dog) Define words such as ball and bat Repeat 10-word sentences Count up to four objects Solve problems such as in daytime it is light; at night it is dark Age 6 State the differences between similar items such as bird and dog Count up to nine blocks Solve analogies such as an inch is short, a mile is Age 9 Solve verbal problems such as tell me a number that rhymes with tree Solve simple arithmetic problems such as If I buy 4 cents' worth of candy and give the storekeeper 10 cents, how much money will I get back? Repeat four digits in reverse order. Age 12 Define words such as muzzle Repeat five digits in reverse order Solve verbal absurdities such as Bill's feet are so big he has to pull his trousers over his head. o Person's performance relative to the scores of others Binets Legacy: Intelligence-Testing Industry Stanford-Binet Test o Only verbal abilities o Accepted in North America as standard for measuring mental aptitude o Used for WWI recruit intelligence testing o Important for educational reform Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale/Children Scale o Replied on verbal and non-verbal abilities o Currently the most popular intelligence tests in North America The Nature of Intelligence Two approaches to the study of intelligence o Psychometric Approach Map structure of intellect and to discover kinds of mental competencies that underlie test performance Statistical study o Cognitive Processes Approach Studies specific thought processes underlying those mental competencies Psychometric Approach: Structure of Intellect Psychometrics o Statistical study of psychological tests Tries to identify & measure abilities that underlie individual differences in performance Tries to provide a measurement-based map of the mind Factor Analysis Administer diverse measures of mental abilities and correlate them with others o If certain tests are correlated highly with another then performance on these tests probably reflects same underlying mental skill Large numbers of tests are correlated with one another many correlation coefficients difficult to determine visually patterning of test scores Factor Analysis o Reduces large number of measures to a smaller number of factors o Allows for inference of underlying characteristic accounting for links among variables o Does not provide information on the actual ability underlying scores The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity Grades in subjects, such as English & Math - almost always positively correlated Spearman o Intellectual performance determined partly by: g factor (general intelligence) Whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task o g Factor Cuts across virtually all tasks Constitutes the core of intelligence o Predictor of both academic and job performance o Predict job success even better than do measures of specific abilities Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities Thurstone: focused on the imperfect positive correlations Human mental performance depends not on g factor but rather on seven distinct primary mental abilities Performance on a given verbal or mathematical task would be influenced more by the specific skills represented in the relevant cluster than by any g factor Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence Cattell and Horn proposed a new model of intelligence Broke down general intelligence into two different but related subtypes of g (correlation of about 0.50) o Crystallized intelligence (gc) Ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems Vocabulary and information tests are good measures Basis for expertise Depends on ability to retrieve previously learned info, schemas & practice long term memory o Fluid intelligence (gf Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations Personal experience does not provide a solution Involves inductive reasoning and creative problem-solving skills Dependent on efficient functioning of central nervous system Requires abilities to reason abstractly, think logically, & manage information in working (short-term) memory We progress from using fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence essence of wisdom Carroll's Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities o Establishes three levels of mental skillsgeneral, broad, and narrow o Top g factor thought to underlie most mental activity o Middle Eight broad intellectual factors Arranged from L to R - extent to which they are correlated with g Fluid intelligence most strongly related to g, then crystallized intelligence, indicating importance of the Cattell-Horn factors Other broad abilities involve basic cognitive functions such as memory and learning, perceptual abilities, and speed of mental functioning, - some resemble Thurstone's primary mental abilities o Bottom Nearly 70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into broader second-stratum Ability Name Description S-Space Reasoning about visual scenes V-Verbal Comprehension Understanding verbal statements W-Word Fluency Producing verbal statements N-Number Facility Dealing with numbers P-Perceptual Speed Recognizing visual patterns M-Rote Memory Memorizing R-Reasoning Dealing with novel problems
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