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Chapter 1-4

Chapter 1-4 textbook notes

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 1 982012 13800 PM Terms Applied research research involving the application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems Basic research research designed to obtain knowledge for its own sake Behavior genetics he scientific study of the role of genetic inheritance in behaviour Behavior modification therapeutic procedures based on operant conditioning principles such as positive reinforcement operant extinction and punishment Behavioural neuroscience the study of brain processes and other physiological functions the underlie our behavior sensory experiences emotions and thoughts Behavioural perspective a view that emphasizes the manner in which the environment and the learning experiences it provides shape and control behaviour Behaviourism school of psychology that emphasizes the role of learning and environmental control over behavior and maintains that the proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior John Watson and BF Skinner were major figures in behaviorism Biological perspective perspective that focuses on the role of biological factors in behavior including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary factors Biopsychology a subfield of psychology that focuses on the biological underpinnings of behaviour British empiricism 17thcentury school of philosophy championed by John Locke according to which all the contents of the mind are gained experientially through the sense this notion was later a cornerstone for the behaviorists position that we are shaped through our experiences Clinical psychology the study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive behaviourism behavioural approach that incorporates cognitive concepts suggesting that the environment influences our behavior by affecting our thoughts and giving us information these cognitive processes allow us to control our behavior and the environment Cognitive neuroscience study of the brain activity of people engaging in cognitive tasks Cognitive perspective psychological perspective that views humans as rational information processors and problem solvers and focuses on the mental processes that influence behaviour Cognitive psychology the study of mental processes especially from a model that views the mind as an information processor Cultural psychology the study of how culture is transmitted to a societys members Culture the enduring values beliefs behaviours and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and passed from one generation to the next Developmental psychology examines changes in our biological physical psychological and behavioural processes as we age Evolutionary psychology afield of study that focuses on the role of evolutionary processes especially natural selection in the development of adaptive psychological mechanisms and social behavior in people Experimental psychology a subfield of psychology that focuses on learning sensory systems perception and motivational states Functionalism an early school of American psychology that focused on the functions of consciousness and behaviour in helping organisms adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs Gestalt psychology a German school of psychology that emphasized the natural organization of perceptual elements into wholes or patterns as well as the role of insight in problem solving Humanistic perspective a psychological perspective that emphasizes personal freedom choice and selfactualization Industrialorganizational psychology a subfield of psychology that examines peoples behavior in the workplace Interaction in analyzing casual factors the influence that the presence or strength of one factor can have on other casual factors Levels of analysisan approach to analyzing behavioural phenomena and their casual factors in terms of biological psychological and environmental factors Mindbody dualism the philosophical position that the mind is a nonphysical entity that is not subject to physical laws and cannot be reduced to physical processes body and mind are two separate entities Monism the philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in the brain so that mind and body are one and the same Natural selection the evolutionary process through which characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival are persevered in the gene pool and thereby become more common in a species over time Neurotransmitters chemical substances that are released from the axons one neuron travel across the synaptic space and bind to specially keyed receptors in another neuron where they produce a chemical reaction that is either excitatory or inhibitory Norms test scores derived from a relevant sample used to evaluate individuals scores behavioural rules Personality psychology a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of human personality Perspectives a theoretical vantage point from which to analyze behavior and its causes Positive psychology movement the study of human strengths fulfillment and optimal living Psychoanalysis the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces Psychodynamic perspective a psychological perspective that focuses on inner personality dynamics including the role of unconscious impulses and defenses in understanding behaviour Psychology the study of behavior and its causes Selfactualization in humanistic theories an inborn tendency to strive toward the realization of ones full potential Social psychology Sociobiology Sociocultural perspective Structuralism an early German school of psychology established by Willhelm Wundt that attempted to study the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its basic components thought to be sensationsPsychology behavior response and actions we can observemind inferred through observable measures Clinical psychology study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive psychology specializes in study of mental processesSees mind as information processorExamine topics such as attention memory decision making and problem solving
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