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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Psychology.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception  Sensation – stimulus detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain  Perception – the organization of stimulus input and giving it meaning  Interpretation is influenced by context of the characters you perceive  Psychophysics – relations between physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory capabilities (concerned about the limits of sensitivity and differences between stimuli  Absolute Threshold – lowest intensity at which as stimulus can be detected 50% of the time  The lower the absolute threshold, the greater the sensitivity  Signal Detection Theory – factors that influence sensory judgments 1. Decision criterion – standard of how certain they must be that a stimulus is present before one says they detect it  Subliminal Stimulus – weak, brief stimulus that is received by the senses, but cannot be perceived consciously  Prosopagnosia – unable to recognize familiar faces  Difference Threshold – smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50% of the time  Weber’s Law – difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus  The smaller the fraction, the greater the sensitivity to differences  Sensory Adaptation – the diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus  The Human Eye 1. Light waves enter through the cornea 2. The pupil is an adjustable opening that can dilate/constrict to control the amount of light that enters the eye 3. The pupil size is controlled by the iris that surrounds the pupil 4. The lens is the elastic structure that becomes thinner to focus on distant objects and thicker to focus on nearby objects (focuses an IMAGE) 5. The lens of the eye focuses the visual imagine on the RETINA(multi-layered tissue at the rear of the eyeball 6. Myopia – near-sightedness (cannot see distant objects) 7. Hyperopia – far-sightedness (cannot see nearby objects)  Rods – function best in dim light, black and white photoreceptors (very sensitive to light)  Cones – the colours receptors, function best during illumination  Rods are found throughout the retina except in the fovea (small area in the centre of the retina that only contains cones)  Bipolar Cells – synaptic connections with rods and cones  Ganglion Cells – bipolar cells synapse with a later of these cells  Optic Nerve – the axons of the ganglion cells are connected to form the optic nerve  Light from the periphery falls on the very sensitive rods, whereas light from the centre of your field of view falls mostly on less light sensitive cones  Visual Acuity – ability to see fine detail (greatest when visual image projects directly onto the fovea  Transduction – the process in which a stimulus is converted into nerve impulses  Rods and cones translate light into nerve impulses through photopigments  Rods are relatively insensitive to the colour RED on the colour spectrum  Dark Adaptation – improvement in brightness sensitivity that occurs over time of low illumination  Trichromatic Theory – 3 types of colour receptors in the retina  Opponent-Process Theory – 3 cone types responds to 2 different wavelengths  Dual-Process Theory – the combination of trichromatic and opponent-process theories to account for the colour transduction process  Dichromat – colour blind in one of the colour systems (red-green or blue-yellow)  Monochromat – colour blind, only sensitive to black and white  Feature Detectors – groups of neurons in the primary visual cortex which are organized to receive and organize sensory nerve impulses  Parallel Processing – simultaneous analysis of different visual characteristics  Visual Association Cortex – analyze visual stimuli sent to the primary visual cortex in relation to stored knowledge and establish the “meaning” of the stimuli  Hammer (malleus) – attached firmly to the eardrum  Stirrup – attached to the oval window, which forms boundary between middle ear and the inner ear  ORGAN OF
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