Textbook Notes (362,880)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (4,729)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Dr.Mike (659)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Psychology.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 8: Memory  Memory – processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information  Encoding – getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes  Storage – retaining information over time  Retrieval – pulling information out of storage when we want to use it  3 Main Components: 1. Sensory Registers – detects and briefly hold incoming sensory information 2. Working Memory – processes certain information received from the sensory registers and information retrieved from long-term memory 3. Long-Term Memory – stores information for longer periods of time  Iconic Store – the visual sensory register  Echoic Store – the auditory sensory register  Chunking – combining individual items into larger units of meaning  Maintenance Rehearsal – simple mental repetition of information  Elaborative Rehearsal – focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know  3 Components of Working Memory 1. Auditory Working Memory – “phonological loop” (i.e. repeating phone numbers, names, or vocabulary terms to yourself mentally) 2. Visual-Spatial Working Memory – temporary store and manipulate images and spatial information (i.e. forming mental “maps” of the route to some destination) 3. Central Executive – the control process that direct the action; decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls up information from long-term memory, and integrates input  Prefrontal cortex is the seat of “executive functions”; heavily involved in directing the processing of information in working memory  Serial Position Effect – U-shaped pattern, meaning that recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items  Primacy Effect – the superior recall of early words; as first few words enter short-term memory, we can quickly rehearse them and transfer them into long-term memory; however, as short term memory fills up, there are too many things to remember, therefore we cannot rehearse the items and they are less likely to get transferred into long-term memory  Recency Effect – the superior recall of the most recent words; last few words have benefit of not being “bumped out” of short-term memory by any new information  Effortful Processing – encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention (i.e. rehearsing, making lists, etc.)  Automatic Processing – encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention  Levels of Processing (using word example) 1. Structural – how the word looks likes 2. Phonological – how the word sounds like 3. Semantic – what the word means  Semantic Encoding involves the deepest processing (the deeper the information processes = the increased likelihood of remembering)  Shallow exposures to a stimulus does not guarantee long-term retention  Maintenance rehearsal requires simple repetition; most useful way for keeping information active in short-term memory and can transfer information into long-term memory  Elaborative Rehearsal focuses on the meaning of information (i.e. thinking of daily applications to our lives, relating to examples, etc.)  Organization and Memory 1. Hierarchy – memory is enhanced by associations between concepts 2. Chunking – combining individual items into a larger unit of meaning 3. Mnemonic Devices – any type of memory aid (i.e. chunking, acronyms, etc.)  Dual coding theory – encoding information using both codes (verbal and nonverbal) enhances memory  Method of Loci – imagining a physical environment to enhance memory  Schemas – an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world (i.e. a class of people, events, objects, etc.)  Memory as a Network 1. Associative Network – massive network of ideas and concepts 2. Priming – activation of one concept by another (i.e. fire engine  red roses)  Neural Network – each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously (often called parallel distributed processing models)  Declarative Memory – factual knowledge, 2 subcategories 1. Episodic – store of factual knowledge, concerning personal experiences 2. Semantic – factual knowledge about the world and language  Procedural Memory – reflected in skills and actions 1. Memory consists of skills that are expressed by “doing” (i.e. typing, riding a bike, etc.) 2. Classical Conditioned Responses also reflect procedural memory  Explicit Memory – conscious/intentional memory retrieval 1. Recognition –decide whether a stimulus is familiar (i.e. eyewitness reports) 2. Recall – spontaneous memory retrieval (i.e. recalling a list of words) 3. Cued Recall – hints are given to stimulate memory  Implicit Memory – memory influences our behav
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.