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Chapter 16

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 16: Social Psychology  Social Psychology studies the field of how we think about and perceive our social world (social thinking and perception), how other people influence our behaviour (social influence), and how we behave toward other people (social relations)  Attribution -judgments about the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes -personal (people’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics) -situational (aspects of the situation that cause a behaviour) -3 attributional factors: consistency (is there a consistent response?), distinctiveness (is it typical?), and consensus (how do other people respond)  Attributional Biases -fundamental attribution factor (underestimate impact of situation and overestimate role of personal factors when explaining other people’s behaviours) -self serving bias (making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures)  Culture and Attribution -East Asians tend to hold a more holistic view of the universe than Westerners (more complex views about causes of behaviours) -same underlying psychological principle (link between holistic thinking and beliefs about causality) seem to account for information seeking difference between cultures and individuals  Forming and Maintaining Impressions -primacy effect (tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person) -recency effect (giving greater weight to the most recent information) -tend to be most alert to information we receive first and shapes how we perceive subsequent information -schema (mental frameworks that help us organize and interpret information) -stereotype (generalized belief about a group of people) -self fulfilling prophecy (people’s expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviours)  Attitudes and Change -attitude (positive/negative evaluative reaction towards a stimulus) -theory of planned behaviour (intention to engage in behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviour, when subjective norms support our attitudes and believe that behaviour is under our control) -3 factors: attitudes influence behaviour more strongly when counteracting situational factors are weak, attitudes have a greater influence on behaviour when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held, and general attitudes are better at predicting general classes of behaviour and specific attitudes are better at predicting behaviour  Does our Behaviour Influence our Attitudes? -theory of cognitive dissonance (people strive for consistency in their cognitions) -self perception theory (make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave) -our behaviours can influence our attitudes  Persuasion -requires a communicator who delivers a message through a channel to an audience within a surrounding context -communicator credibility (how believable the communicator is) -two-sided refutational approach, moderate degree of discrepancy, and moderate fear is effective -central route to persuasion (people think carefully about message and find argument compelling) -peripheral route to persuasion (influence by other factors like speaker’s attractiveness or emotional appeal)  Social Influence -mere presence of others affects our performance -social facilitation (increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others)  Social Norms -shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave -social role (set of norms that characterize how people in a given social position should behave) -autokinetic effect illusion by Sherif (1935)  Conformity and Obedience -informational social influence (follow behaviour of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is right) -normative social influence (conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people, while avoiding rejection) -2 factors affect conformity: group size and presence of a dissenter  Factors that Influence Destructive Obedience -remoteness of victim (learner was out of sight) -closeness and legitimacy of authority figure (authority figure was present at the scene) -cog in a wheel (obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work) -personal characteristics (i.e. religion, education, etc.)  Detecting and Resisting Compliance Techniques -norm of rec
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