Psychology 1000 Graham Volk
Chapter 1 Questions
1 Psychology 1000 Graham Volk
1. Define psychology and indicate what kinds of behaviors it studies.
a. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. It can
study behaviors such as actions and responses.
2. What are the four goals of psychology? How are these goals linked to one
a. Four goals of psychology are to describe how humans and animals
behave, to explain and understand the causes of these behaviors, to
predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions,
and to influence and control this behavior. They are all linked together
as they build off one another.
3. How do the goals of basic research and applied research differ?
a. Basic research is the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake
whereas applied research is designed to solve specific practical
4. What are perspectives on behavior? Cite four ways in which they can influence
a. Perspectives on behavior serve as lenses – biological, psychological,
and environmental. They influence psychological science by causing
challenges and debates to seek a solution. It also influences
philosophy, medicine, biological sciences, and physical sciences.
5. Contrast the positions of dualism and monism as they apply to the “mind-
2 Psychology 1000 Graham Volk
a. Mind-body dualism is the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not
subject to physical laws that govern the body. Monism holds the belief
that the mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate
spiritual entity. Although the physical mind can be seen, and damage
to parts of the brain can be seen, the thought process cannot.
6. Compare the goals of structuralism and functionalism.
a. Structuralism refers to the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic
elements. Functionalism believes psychology should study the
functions of consciousness rather than its structure.
7. What causal factors are the focus of the psychodynamic perspective?
a. Causal factors that are the focus of the psychodynamic perspective are
within the inner-workings of one’s personality such as unique patters
of traits, emotions, and motives.
8. What observations convinced Freud of the importance of unconscious and
childhood determinants of adult behavior?
a. Observations that convinced Freud of the importance of
unconsciousness and childhood determinants of adult behavior
include his patients re-living traumatic childhood experiences which
were “long-forgotten” in nature.
9. In what sense, according to Freud, is the human in continuous internal conflict?
a. According to Freud, the human is in continuous internal conflict
because humans have a powerful inborn sexual and aggressive drive
3 Psychology 1000 Graham Volk
that they fear as they are punished, which leads to anxiety – as a
defense mechanism – and eventually depression.
10.What are the important causal factors in behavior within the behavioral
perspective? How was this school of thought influenced by British empiricism?
a. The important causal factors in behavior within the behavioral
perspective is that behavior is jointly determined by habits learned
from previous life experiences and my stimuli in our immediate
environment. This school of though was influenced by British
empiricism because, according to this school of thought, the human is
born a “blank slate” upon which experiences are written – thus
completely shaped by environment.
11.What is cognitive behaviorism? How does it differ from radical behaviorism?
a. In cognitive behaviorism it is believed that learning experiences and
the environment affect our behavior by giving us information we need
to behave effectively, whereas radical behaviorism claims that there is
no such thing as the mind, only behavior.
12.How does the humanistic conception of human nature and motivation differ
from that psychoanalysis and behaviorism?
a. The humanistic conception of human nature and motivation differs
from that advanced by psychoanalysis and behaviorism due to a new
view of humanism that arose; it emphasized free will, personal
growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence.
Behaviorism however states that humans are products of their
4 Psychology 1000 Graham Volk
environment. The humanistic perspective rejected this and rejected
the psychodynamic concepts of humans being controlled by
unconscious forces and believed humans have an inborn force
towards reaching one’s individual potential.
13.What is the conception of human nature advanced by the cognitive
a. The conception of human nature advanced by the cognitive
perspective (which examines the nature of the mind and how mental
processes influence behavior) believes that humans are information
processors whose actions are governed by thought.
14.What does gestalt mean? How does this meaning relate to the goals and
findings of Gestalt psychology?
a. Gestalt psychology examines how the mind organizes elements of
experience into a unified or “whole” perception. They argued that
perceptions are organized so that “the whole is greater than the sum
of its parts.” They also believed that the tendency to perceive wholes
is built into one’s nervous system. Gestalt means “whole” or
15.Define culture and norms. What functions does a culture serve?
a. Culture refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviors, and
traditions that are shared by a large group of people and