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Rehabilitation Sciences
Rehabilitation Sciences 3360A/B
Tom Haffie

Psychology  and  the  Workplace November-­‐23-­‐12 8:35  PM - Motivation  is  one  of  the  major  problems  facing  organizations ż Motivation  is  important ƒ Why?   1. As  a  consumer  you  are  often  victim  of  dissatisfied  workers   2. You  will  spend  1/3  to  1/2  waking  hours  at  work  fo-05  years - IO  psych  applied  to  recruit,  select  and  train  workers  and  to  provide  effective  leadership THEORIES  OF  MOTIVATION Achievement  motivation  theory - Achievement  motivation  (need  for  achievement)-­‐characteristic  of  successful  executives;  desire  to   accomplish  something,  to  do  a  good  job  and  to  be  the  best   ż High  need  for  achievement  derive  great  satisfaction  from  working  to  accomplish  a  GOAL ż Successful  business  managers  display  high  need  to  achieve  (despite  culture) ż Economic  growth  of  organizations  and  societies  can  be  related  to  the  level  of  need  for   achievement  among  EMPLOYEES  and  CITIZENS - McClelland's  3  major  characteristics  of  people  who  have  high  need  to  achieve: 1. Favor  work  enviro  in  which  they  are  able  to  assume  responsibility  for  solving  problems 2. Take  calculated  risks  and  set  moderate  attainable  goals 3. Need  continuing  recognition  and  feedback  about  their  progress  so  they  know  how  they  are  doing - 2  types  of  goals  that  can  satisfy  need  for  achievement: 1. Mastery-­‐developing  competence  and  self  satisfaction  through  acquiring  knowledge  and  skills 2. Performance-­‐goals  involving  developing  competence  by  performing  better    than  other  people  like   coworkers  who  are  in  the  same  situation i. College  students  in  Netherlands:  2/3  preferred  mastery  goals ii. Strong  mastery  orientation  more  effective  on  job  than  strong  performance  orientation 1. High  mastery  established  higher  quality  leader  member  exchanges  with  their   supervisor 2. High  performance  established  lower - Studies: ż High  positive  correlation  between  achievement  motivation  scores  of  executives  and  the  financial   success  of  their  companies ƒ High  positive  relationship  between  need  for  achievement  and  job  performance   ż Managers  with  high  achievement  motivation  display  more  respect  for  subordinates,  more   receptive  to  new  ideas  and    more  accepting  of  participative  management  programs ż Entrepreneurs  high  in  need  for  achievement  than  non-­‐entrepreneurs  (men  and  women) ż Dimensions  of  achievement  motivation  important  in  Taiwan  high  tech  jobs ƒ Perseverance ƒ Competition ƒ Level  of  difficulty  of  controlling  the  task Needs  Hierarchy  Theory - Abraham  Maslow - Human  needs  are  arranged  in  hierarchy  of  importance ż People  always  want  what  they  do  not  yet  have ż Once  needs  are  satisfied  they  no  longer  provide  any  motivation  for  behaviour  and  new  needs   must  ride  to  prominence ż Order  is  important  (must  have  one  before  move  to  next) - PYRAMID  of  needs: ż Starting  at  base: ƒ Physiological  needs -­‐basic  human  needs  including  food,  air,  water  and  sleep  and  the  drives   for  sex  and  activity ƒ Safety  needs-­‐need  for  physical  shelter  and  for  psych  security  and  stability ƒ Belonging  and  love  needs-­‐social  needs  for  love,  affection,  friendship  and  affiliation   Important  motivating  forces  on  the  job Ƒ Important  motivating  forces  on  the  job ƒ Esteem  needs-­‐need  for  self-­‐esteem  and  admiration  and  respect  from  other  people Ƒ Satisfied  by  buying  a  bigger  house  or  car..  And  contribute  to  feeling  of  success ƒ Self  actualization  needs-­‐need  for  self  fulfillment,  achieving  potential  and  realizing  our   capabilities Ƒ Employees  should  be  provided  with  opportunities  for  growth  and  responsibility - CONS: ż Little  research  and  support ż Low  scientific  validity  and  applicability   - PROS: ż Popular  with  managers  who  accepted  this  high-­‐level  need  as  a  potent  motivating  force Motivator-­‐Hygiene  (two  factor)  Theory - Deals  with  both  motivation  and  job  satisfaction - Herzberg  2  sets  of  needs: 1. Motivator  needs-­‐produce  job  satisfaction   ƒ Internal    to  task(include  nature  of  individual  job  tasks  and  level  of  workers  responsibility,   achievement,  recognition,  advancement  and  career  development  and  growth) ƒ Motivate  high  job  performance ƒ Similar  to  Maslow's  self  actualization  needs 2. Hygiene  needs-­‐produce  job  dissatisfaction ƒ External  to  task  (work  enviro,  company  policy,  supervision  or  interpersonal  relations,  salary   and  benefits) ƒ Promotion  and  maintenance  of  health ƒ Hygiene  needs  NOT  satisfied  =  job  dissatisfaction ƒ Hygiene  needs  ARE  satisfied  =  absence  of  dissatisfaction  (not  necessarily  satisfaction) - Job  enrichment-­‐expands  job  to  give  employees  a  greater  role  in  planning,  performing  and  evaluation   their  work  thus  providing  a  chance  to  satisfy  their  motivator  needs ż Ways  to  enrich  job: ƒ Remove  some  management  controls  to  increase  accountability  and  responsibility  for  work   (increasing  autonomy,  authority  and  freedom) ƒ Natural  work  units    (allow  employees  to  produce  a  whole  unit  instead  of  one  component) ƒ Regular  and  continuous  feedback ƒ Encourage  employees  to  take  on  new  and  challenging  tasks   ż All  with  same  goal  to  increase  personal  growth,  fulfilling  the  needs  for  achievement  and   responsibility  and  providing  recognition Job  Characteristic  Theory - Job  factors  that  are  correlated  with  employee  satisfaction  and  attendance   ż Certain  characteristics  influence  behaviour  and  attitudes  at  work   ż These  characteristics  do  not  influence  all  employees  the  same  way   ƒ ex.  Individual  difference  in  need  for  growth ƒ High  growth  more  affected  by  changes  in  job  characteristics  than  ppl  with  low  growth  needs ƒ Changes  in    these  characteristics  did  not  seem  to  influence  employee  attitudes  and   behaviour  directly  but  were  filtered  by  : Ƒ employees  cognitive  processes  (ie.  Perceptions  of  the  changes) ż Presence  of  certain  characteristics  =  >  positive  emotional  state  of  employees  when  they  perform   well  (psych  condition)  =>    motivates  them  to  continue  to  perform  well  and  satisfaction ƒ Strength  of  employees  motivation  to  perform  well  depends  on  the  strength  of  the  need  to   grow  and  develop - Hackman  and  Oldham  core  job  characteristics: ż Skill  variety-­‐use  of  variety  of  skills  and  abilities  on  the  job ż Task  identity-­‐unity  of  job  (doing  whole  unit  of  work  vs  only  part  of  product  on  assembly  line) ż Task  significance-­‐importance  of  job  to  lives  and  well  being  of  coworkers  or  consumers ż Autonomy-­‐amount  of  independence  employees  have  for  scheduling  and  organizing  their  work ż Feedback ż See  page  165  for  ways  to  redesign  jobs  to  maximize  these - Job  diagnostic  survey  (JDS) -­‐measures  3  aspects  of  the  theory: 1. Employees  perceptions  of  the  job  characteristics 2. Employees  level  of  growth  need 2. Employees  level  of  growth  need 3. Employees  job  satisfaction - Revised  version  using  positively  worded  items  found  to  be  more  valid  than  original - Focus  on  enlarging,  enriching  or  redefining  jobs  to  provide  greater  responsibility,  noting  importance  of   opportunities  for  growth,  self  actualization,  personal  achievement,  and  increased  motivation  through   increased  accountability,  challenge,  control  and  autonomy  at  work PROCESS  THEORIES  OF  MOTIVATION Valence-­‐ Instrumentality-­‐ Expectancy  Theory  (VIE) - Victor  Vroom - People  make  choices  based  on  their  perceived  expectancy  that  certain  rewards  will  follow  if  they  behave   a  certain  way ż Motivated  to  work  hard  if  they a) Expect  effort  to  lead  to  positive  outcomes  (promotion,  pay)  (EXPECTANCY) b) If  outcomes  will  be  instrumental  in  leading  to  other  desired  results    (INSTRUMENTALITY) Ƒ Outcome  may  not  be  as  satisfying  as  expected  but  it  is  the  level  of  expectancy  that   determines  if  a  person  will  work  hard  to  obtain  that  outcome c) Value  of  reward  varies  with  individual  (VALENCE) Ƒ Personal  perception  of  importance  of  outcome  determines  its  strength  as  a  motivator   - Greater  our  expectation  of  receiving  a  reward,  assuming  sufficient  value,  the  harder  we  will  work  for  it Equity  Theory - Notion  that  motivation  is  influenced  by  our  perception  of  how  equitably  we  are  treated  at  work ż We  assess  inputs  (how  much  effort  we  put  into  work) ż We  assess  outcomes  (how  much  reward  we  receive  for  work) ż We  compare  it  with  what  we  believe  are  the  ratios  of  coworkers - If  we  perceive  to  receive  <  coworkers  =>  feeling  of  tension  or  inequity  that  motivates  us  to  take  action  to   do  something  to  bring  about  a  state  of  equity - If  we  perceive  to  receive  =  coworkers  =>  state  of  equity - 3  Types: 1. Benevolent-­‐people  described  as  altruistic,  are  satisfied  with  under-­‐reward  compared  to   coworkers    and  feel  guilty  when  they  are  equitably  rewarded 2. Equity-­‐Sensitive-­‐believe  everyone  should  be  rewarded  fairly  and  feel  distressed  when  under -­‐ rewarded  or  guilty  when  over -­‐rewarded 3. Entitled-­‐people  believe  that  everything  they  receive  is  their  due,  satisfied  only  when  over-­‐ rewarded  and  distressed  other  times - Employee  perceptions  of  inequity  are  linked  to  increased  levels  of  resentment,  absenteeism  and   turnover  and  burnout The  work  ethic:  Lets  hear  it  for  Cal  Ripken! - Ripken  broke  Lou  Gehrig's  record  for  longest  streak  of  consecutive  games  played - Work  ethic-­‐drives,  pushes  and  motivates  people  to  work  hard,  to  do  the  best  they  can,  to  be  on  time,   and  to  show  up  for  work  everyday - History: ż Greeks  and  Romans  thought  there  was  nothing  noble  about  work ż Hebrews  thought  work  was  a  punishment  from  God,  although  necessary  evil  and  a  way  to  improve   society ż Christians  thought  way  to  serve  God  by  sharing  proceeds  with  less  fortunate   Goal  Setting  Theory - Motivation  in  a  work  situation  is  defined  in  terms  of  our  desire  to  achieve  a  particular  goal - Specific  and  challenging  performance  goals  can  motivate  behaviour  and  make  people  perform  more   effectively ż Goals  =>  better  performance   ż Specific    and  difficult  goals  =  more  motivating   ƒ But  difficult  goals  may  motivate  towards  attaining  goals  at  expense  of  others   ƒ Or  too  difficult  can  be  beyond  persons  capabilities    =  worse  than  having  no  goals  in  terms  of   impact  on  motivation  and  job  performance Individual  goal  commitment  (strength  of  persons  determination  to  attain  goal) ż Individual  goal  commitment  (strength  of  persons  determination  to  attain  goal) ƒ Increases  when  authority  figure  is  present,  supportive  and  trusted   ƒ External  factors  that  affect  goals  :  authority,  peers  and  external  rewards ƒ Interactive  factors  :  competition  and  opportunity  to  participate  in  setting  goals   ƒ Internal  factors:  (cognitive  factors)  self  administered  rewards  and  expectation  of  success ƒ Personal  factors:  success  in  achieving  difficult  goals,  high  self  esteem  and  internal  locus  of   control Ƒ Type  A  behaviour  (need  for  achievement,  endurance,  aggressiveness  and   competitiveness Ƒ Big  5  personality  factors    High  in  conscientiousness,  low  in  neuroticism  =>  high  levels  of  motivation   induced  by  goal  setting   - Motivating  effects  of  setting  goals  is  strongest  for  easy  tasks  and  weakest  for  difficult  tasks   - PRO: ż Most  practical  theory  of  employee  motivation - IMPORTANT:  process  theories  share  common  theme  of  how  we  perceive  the  work  situation  determines   how  motivated  we  are  to  perform  at  a  high  level  in  that  situation JOB  SATISFACTION:  THE  QUALITY  OF  LIFE  AT  WORK - Job  satisfaction-­‐refers  to  the  positive  and  negative  feelings  and  attitudes  employees  hold  about  a  job ż Most  frequently  studied  independent  variable  in  IO  psych - Factors: ż Opportunity  to  make  a  contribution  to  society ż Good  pay ż Adventure  and  excitement ż Autonomy  on  the  job ż Respect  from  peers ż Job  security - Personal  Factors: ż Age,  health,  length  of  job  experience,  emotional  stability,  social  status,  leisure  activities  and   family/social  relationships - Job  satisfaction  influences  psychological  well  being  even  after  workers  retire ż Low  job  sat  reported  improved  psych  health  after  retirement   ż High  job  sat  reported  positive  well  being  both  before  and  after  retirement - Changing  jobs  =>  immediate  increase  in  job  satisfaction  but  declines  with  a  year  or  two ż Honeymoon  and  hangover  effect - Job  satisfaction  is  stable  for  some  individuals  independent  of  features  of  the  job ż Personal  tendency  of  happiness  or  unhappiness   ż Could  be  hereditary ż Positive  attitudes  towards  work  are  likely  to  have  positive  feelings  about  their  personal  and  family   lives ƒ Reciprocal  interaction  between  job  sat  and  life  satisfaction  in  short  term.  Long  term  life  sat   has  stronger  impact  on  job  sat - Performance  highest  among  people  who  also  score  high  on  job  sat  and  psych  well  being   - Top  100  companies  to  work  for  in  US  report  high  job  sat  that  is  stable  over  time ż High  correlation  between  these  employees  positive  attitudes  toward  their  companies  and  the   companies  financial  performance Measuring  job  satisfaction - Questionnaire ż Job  descriptive  index  (JDI) ƒ Scales  to  measure  5  job  factors   Ƒ Pay,  promotion,  supervision,  nature  of  work  and  the  characteristics  of  coworkers ż Minnesota  Satisfaction  questionnaire  (MSQ) ƒ Rating  scales  for  various  levels  of  satisfaction  and  dissatisfaction   ƒ 20  job  facets  including: Advancement,  social  status,  independence,  recognition,  working  conditions Ƒ Advancement,  social  status,  independence,  recognition,  working  conditions - Polling  Data ż Problem  with  workers  claiming  they  are  satisfied  when  they  are  not ƒ Distinction  between  satisfied  and  not  dissatisfied - Satisfaction  varies  with  type  of  occupation ż Assembly  line  workers  are  significantly  less  satisfied  with  their  jobs  than  office  workers   ż Managers  in  government  agencies  are  less  satisfied  than  managers  in  private  industry Personal  Characteristics  and  Job  Satisfaction - By  redesigning  job  and  work  enviro  management  can  increase  satisfaction  and  productivity 1. Age-­‐job  satisfaction  increases  with  age   ż So-­‐called  baby  boomers  scored  higher  on  job  sat  than  those  born  later ż Many  young  ppl  are  disappointed  with  their  first  jobs  because  they  fail  to  find  sufficient  challenge   and  responsibility ż Why? a) Dissatisfied  young  workers  may  drop  out  of  the  workforce  and  change  jobs b) Older  the  sample  of  employees  studied  the  fewer  dissatisfied  people  that  are  likely  to  be   included c) Sense  of  resignation  develops  in  some  workers  as  they  grow  older  and  therefore  seek   satisfaction  elsewhere d) Greater  opportunity  for  fulfillment  and  self  actualization  on  the  job  for  older  worker  (age   and  experience  usually  brings  increased  confidence,  competence,  esteem  and  responsibility 2. Gender-­‐inconsistent  data.  It  may  not  be  gender  that  relates  to  job  sat  but  the  group  of  factors  that  vary   with  gender ż Women  typically  paid  less    for  same  work ż Women  have  fewer  opportunities  for  promotion ż Women  have  to  work  harder  to  be  more  outstanding  on  the  job  before  they  receive  rewards   comparable  to  men 3. Race-­‐more  white  than  non-­‐white  employees  report  jobs  satisfaction  with  their  jobs ż Large  numbers  of  minorities  who  want  to  work  are  unemployed,  employed  irregularly  or  are  too   discouraged  to  seek  employment   ż Many  who  have  work  are  confined  to  low  level  jobs   ż Primary  concern  is  not  satisfaction  but  finding  a  job  that  pays  a  decent  wage 4. Cognitive  ability-­‐doesn't  appear  to  be  significant  determinant  of  job  satis
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