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Sociology 2169 Chapter Notes -Social Inequality, Ritualism In The Church Of England, Absenteeism

by OneClass62051 , Fall 2012
4 Pages
98 Views
Fall 2012

Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2169
Professor
o

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Chapter Four- Work, Alienation, Well-Being, and Health
Alienation
Alienation explains how work under capitalism is structured to make workers powerless with
respect to content, conditions, production, and processes of their work
Control is put into hands of owners
Work loses its ability to be self-actualizing, or to fulfill higher human needs
Four sources of alienation:
o Workers are alienated from what they produce
Work is a means to an end does provide any fulfillment
o Workers do not have control over the process of production
Decisions are all made by owners and their agents
Further prevents them from fulfilling themselves
o Workers alienated from themselves or from engaging in creative activity
Separate themselves from humanity
Marx humans define themselves through labour
o Workers alienated from others
Divided through exploitation and social inequality
Alienation produced from structure and organization of work under capitalism
Negative impacts: limiting workers potential, harm workers physically and mentally
Blauner’s study – Alienation and Freedom workers’ alienation increased as technology shifted
from craftwork to machine tending and assembly-line work
Exerting more skill and autonomy on the job, workers feel less alienated than others
Eicher and Thompson alienation is linked to occupational self-direction those will little
occupational self-direction are much less likely to feel alienated
Alienation linked with class:
o Blue-collar, and lower-level service jobs more alienated
o Middle-class workers in jobs that require more education are granted more autonomy
People enjoy work that has intrinsic awards people do desire work that is creatively fulfilling
Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction summary measure of “workers’ attitude of overall acceptance, contentment
and enjoyment of their jobs”
o Intrinsic awards decision-making opportunities, challenging nonrepetitive work, and
autonomy that allows for self-direction and responsibility over tasks (INNER
SATISFACTION)
o Extrinsic awards good wages, benefits, employment security, and opportunities for
advancement (THINGS THAT WILL BENEFIT YOUR LIFE)
Satisfied workers are not always happy and fulfilled workers
Issues with measuring how satisfied we are with our jobs:
o We have complex feelings about our job we love what we do, but hate our boss etc..
o Represents an attitude or feelings that may be only loosely connected to how we
behave at work
What Makes Workers Satisfied?
Characteristics that are important for contributing to job satisfaction:
o Extent to which work is autonomous, challenging, and interesting

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Description
Chapter Four- Work, Alienation, Well-Being, and Health Alienation  Alienation explains how work under capitalism is structured to make workers powerless with respect to content, conditions, production, and processes of their work  Control is put into hands of owners  Work loses its ability to be self-actualizing, or to fulfill higher human needs  Four sources of alienation: o Workers are alienated from what they produce  Work is a means to an end  does provide any fulfillment o Workers do not have control over the process of production  Decisions are all made by owners and their agents  Further prevents them from fulfilling themselves o Workers alienated from themselves or from engaging in creative activity  Separate themselves from humanity  Marx – humans define themselves through labour o Workers alienated from others  Divided through exploitation and social inequality  Alienation produced from structure and organization of work under capitalism  Negative impacts: limiting workers potential, harm workers physically and mentally  Blauner’s study – Alienation and Freedom – workers’ alienation increased as technology shifted from craftwork to machine tending and assembly-line work  Exerting more skill and autonomy on the job, workers feel less alienated than others  Eicher and Thompson – alienation is linked to occupational self-direction – those will little occupational self-direction are much less likely to feel alienated  Alienation linked with class: o Blue-collar, and lower-level service jobs  more alienated o Middle-class workers in jobs that require more education are granted more autonomy  People enjoy work that has intrinsic awards  people do desire work that is creatively fulfilling Job Satisfaction  Job satisfaction – summary measure of “workers’ attitude of overall acceptance, contentment and enjoyment of their jobs” o Intrinsic awards – decision-making opportunities, challenging nonrepetitive work, and autonomy that allows for self-direction and responsibility over tasks (INNER SATISFACTION) o Extrinsic awards – good wages, benefits, employment security, and opportunities for advancement (THINGS THAT WILL BENEFIT YOUR LIFE)  Satisfied workers are not always happy and fulfilled workers  Issues with measuring how satisfied we are with our jobs: o We have complex feelings about our job – we love what we do, but hate our boss etc.. o Represents an attitude or feelings that may be only loosely connected to how we behave at work What Makes Workers Satisfied?  Characteristics that are important for contributing to job satisfaction: o Extent to which work is autonomous, challenging, and interesting  Most important factor for contributing to job satisfaction  Higher priority than good pay  More satisfied with interesting, autonomous, and challenging jobs o Having positive relations with co workers  Positive interactions are rated very high and are more satisfying  Other characteristics: ability to balance work and family, job security and opportunities for advancement, good pay, and a feeling of being valued and appreciated Are Some Types of Workers More Satisfied Than Others?  No evidence of gender difference in satisfaction with jobs – equally satisfied o Even though women have worse conditions than men o Paradox: women consistently satisfied with less  women value work differently than men  Disagreement with paradox...but men are more satisfied with good pay, promotion opportunities, complexity, and so on o Women have work with more positive interactions which can compensate for their routine work  Difference in satisfaction in race/ethnicity o Visible minorities are less satisfied with their jobs o Coloured workers will be less satisfied  Immigrants have high job satisfaction o Even though immigrants face serious obstacles in search for work – although negative features still a high satisfaction with the work they get  Age – younger workers are more likely less satisfied with their jobs than older workers o Explained by the types of jobs youth are able to get o Youth expectations: youth expect more from their jobs o Older expectations: older workers have met their expectations and achieved their goals  Jobs satisfaction varies across difference occupations o Less satisfying jobs: mining, fishing, and farming, and manufacturing sector and industry work o Work in the health industry – is the least satisfying o Conclusion: workers with more occupational self-direction (less alienated) are more satisfied with their work  More satisfied are those who have jobs that are less alienating Workplace Stress  Stress – state of tension produced by pressures or conflicting demands with which the person cannot
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