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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Textbook Notes

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Western University
Sociology 2169

Chapter Six Occupational Segregation Where people work and what they do depends on their gender, race and/or ethnicity, and other factors Sex and Racial Segregation at Work Occupational segregation occurs when people from different social categories do different types of work Sex segregation occurs when men and women work in different occupation, jobs, and/or workplaces Racial segregation occurs when people from different racial or ethnic backgrounds work in different jobs, occupations, and/or workplaces Sex segregation is more extensive than racial segregation The Extent and Nature of Sex Segregation Index of dissimilarity a statistical calculation that indicates the percentage of people who would have to change their occupation to produce a completely unsegregated occupational distribution o Sex segregation: calculates the percentage of women who would have to change jobs to ensure that their employment activity resembled mens o Racial segregation: calculation involves choosing a group of interest and calculating the percentage of people within this group who would have to change jobs to make the distribution equal compared to another selected group or to the labour force Sex segregation is on the decline Brooks and colleagues: o Horizontal segregation different groups work in different jobs often in different sectors of the economy Associated with inequality o Vertical segregation segregation associated with income inequality Drop of sex segregation, then there is decreasing gender inequality in the workforce Half of all women would need to change jobs to have an occupational distribution similar to mens Bielby and Baron sex segregation at the level of job is higher than occupational-level segregation for two reasons: o When men and women share a broad occupation category and do similar work they are given different job titles, with different incomes and opportunities for advancement o Men and women rarely do similar work in the same organization and location Employment of men and women tend to be concentrated in different types of occupations The Extent and Nature of Racial Segregation Overall decline in racial segregation drop in index of dissimilarity o The ethnic group would have to change jobs to have the same occupational distribution as the population as a whole In 1971: lowest occupational dissimilarity people from British, German, Polish, and Ukrainian descent The more occupations means a decrease in racial segregation During the period of 1971 to 1991 womens employment continued to be less ethnically segregated than mens because womens employment tends to be concentrated into fewer categories Men from Jewish backgrounds had the highest occupational dissimilarity then: Chinese, Portuguese, Greek, and Aboriginal or Metis backgrounds Occupational status: another way to measure racial differences in occupation who is most likely to perform jobs that are admired and well-respected in society o Coloured people are less likely to hold positions of status and authority Lowest-status jobs are held by Portuguese, Aboriginal and Metis, Greek and Black workers Jewish and British people tend to hold good jobs (high status) People from different racial and ethnic backgrounds have different work patterns Racial segregation at the level of occupations also underestimates segregation at the level of jobs Da Gupta workers from different racialized backgrounds are physically segreaged or separated, people tend to work with those who are from the same ethnic background as their own o The restaurant workforce is not racially segregated on the level of occupation Ex. Greek restaurant hires Greek serves...etc.. Implications of Occupational Segregation Differences in income, opportunities for advancement and promotion, and exercising authority Income 2002: Canadian women earned 65% of what Canadian men earned Wages gap is sometimes due to more women working part time than men Female-dominated jobs pay less than male-dominated jobs sex segregation Cotter and colleagues: earnings of all workers is lower in female occupations Factors of gender gap in wages: age and discrimination In many occupations women make less money than do men even when doing the same type of work Women even earned less than men in jobs that were common for women Racial segregation contributes to racialized differences in earnings o People of colour earn less than others Li: foreign-born have a higher average income than do native-born Canadians o Exception: people of colour tend to make less than others Groups with highest-status jobs earn higher incomes than those whose work is concentrated in lower-status jobs Difference in wages can be linked to education: those who are more educated tend to earn more money o Li: Black and Chinese Canadians earned less regardless of their education Opportunities for Promotion and Advancement Occupation segregation can affect workers opportunities for receiving promotions Maumes study of managerial promotions: glass ceiling for women and glass escalator for men o In female-dominated jobs, mens odds of getting a promotion increase while womens decrease men will be promoted to the top o In male-dominated jobs, mens chances for promotion increase Black men are less likely to be promoted than White men Women are less likely to be promoted than men Authority and Power Ability to make decisions at work and exercise autonomy is differentially distributed across gender and race On average women are less likely to be in positions where they can make decisions and exercise power Men and women of colour are most likely to be in lower positions where they exercise little authority at work Women exercise less authority than men Boyd and colleagues: men are likely to exercise authority over other men and over other women, while women only exercise authority over other women o Sex segregation shapes the ability of men and women to exercise authority and make decisions at work Smith and Elliot: people are most likely to exercise authority over others from the same racialized group o Opportunities to exercise authority depend on racial backgrounds Common Explanation of Occupational Segregation Segregation as the Result of Personal Choice (page 99) Occupational segregation has been the result of the choices individuals make about work o The cultural and social differences between men and women and different racialized groups lead them to chose different types of work Gender socialization explains that in sex segregation women and men chose an occupation that suits them best Racial segregat
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