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Chapter 8

Sociology 2233 Chapter 8 Textbook Notes

4 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2233
Professor
Richard Sorrentino

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Description
Chapter 8 – Group Processes Group:Acollection of three or more people who interact with one another and are interdependent • Their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another • Two people = dyad – NOT a group Evolutionarily: Survival advantage to forming bonds • Sense of belongingness associated with positive self-esteem, well-being and motivation • Those most strongly identified with the group most likely to engage in social change Group Dynamics • Most social groups have 3-6 members • This “smaller” number promotes interaction • Group members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs, opinions • Groups attract people who are already similar before they join • Groups operate to encourage similarity in members Social Roles: shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are supposed to behave • Norms: HowALL group members behave • Role of prison guard, anonymity, dehumanization contribute to inappropriate behaviour in experiment • Traditional gender roles exist, women make 71.4 cents per dollar men make Group Cohesiveness: qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking Social Facilitation: When the presence of others energizes Us • Mere presence of others improves performance on simple well-learned tasks • Inhibits performance for newer or more difficult tasks WHY? Robert Zajonc • Presence of others increases physiological arousal (bodies become energized) • When arousal exists, it’s easier to do something simple (dominant response) but not difficult • Arousal leads us to feel flustered if it is a new task • Social Facilitation: tendency for people to do better on simple tasks, but worse on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated Why Presence of Others Causes Arousal: 1. Other people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant 2. They make us apprehensive about how we’re being evaluated a. EvaluationApprehension; concern about being judged 3. They distract us from task at hand a. Non-social sources of distraction have same effect as presence of ppl Social Loafing: When Presence of Others Relaxes Us Social Loafing: The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated • Computers can improve quality of group ideas • Allows interaction while remaining anonymous, thus reducing evaluation apprehension • But can lead to controversial ideas spiraling out of control • Social loafing stronger in men than women o This is because women are higher in relational interdependence o Stronger in Western than Eastern cultures If individual efforts can be evaluatednorelaxedsocial loafing Whether task is simple or complex  social facilitation Deindividuation: Loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a group, leading to increase in impulsive and deviant acts • Getting lost in a crowd, hiding behind anonymity • Disguises 1. Presence of others, or wearing of uniforms/disguises makes people feel less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood of any individual being singled out and blamed 2. Presence of others lowers self-awareness, shifting attention away from their moral standards 3. Deindividuation increases obedience of group norms Group Decisions:Are two or more heads better than one? • Yes when they are motivated to search for answer that’s best for entire group and not just for themselves • When they rely on person with the most expertise Process Loss: Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good performance • Failure to identify more competent member • Communication problems • Failure to share unique info o Solution: Assign group members to different areas of expertise so they know they are alone and responsible for certain types of info  More likely to share info later on and receive attention from other members Transactive Memory: combined memory of two people that’s more efficient than memory of either individual Groupthink:Akind of thinking where maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more importnat than consider facts in a realistic manner Most likely to occur under certain preconditions: 1. Group is highly cohesive 2. Isolated from contrary opinions 3. Ruled by directive leader who makes his/her wishes known • When conditions are met, group begins t
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