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Chapter 4

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Sociology 2235

Chapter 4 - Ambert Without understanding the economy we cannot fully grasp the concept of recent family transformations. o We now live in a post-industrial economy characterized by: 1) Information Technology: high finances including „paper‟ speculation (the stock market) 2) The predominance of the service sector o The globalization of the Economy has occurred: It is driven by multinational corporations around the world  in order to increase their profits, corporations move their production plants and call centers around the world in places with cheap labor. o It is world of Mergers, Acquisitions, Restructuring and Downsizing o National economies are dependent upon worldwide financial fluctuations. o Governments no longer control the labor markets, rather they are now controlled by the Multinational Corporation who determine  who will work where and for how much wage. o Workers from large companies such as Goldman Sachs have represented countries in national summits like the G8. o Until 1970  some of the largest employers were industries producing goods such as steel and cars. o Manufacturing jobs – 15% by 1995 and they provided job security, entry level positions for new graduates, benefit packages to young workers out of high school. o After 1970‟s technology advanced and fewer low-skilled workers were needed. o 1970‟s also had another important phenomena  The service sector Expanded, offering low paying part-time jobs such as hotels and restaurants and retail industry o The corporations, to increase profits moved on from full-time to part-time jobs and contracts which gave the workers lesser wages, less working hours and few or no health/pension benefits. o Woman constitute 70% of all part-time employees. o The Detrimental feminine wage and labor situation contributes to poverty in single-mother families and in low income families in which two salaries are necessary. o Children of Single mother, whose father‟s are not around are known to repeat the patterns of poverty in their own adult lives. There has recently been an inflation in the educational requirements for jobs  Even low paying jobs now require many formal years of education. The gap between the rich and poor in terms of wealth – assets such as real estate, stocks and savings account. - this gap is partially related to married couples as they have more assets. - The Debt load of Canadians has also increased significantly with the ratio of Debt to disposable income has reached 127%. Economic Changes have had the following effects on the Family: 1) An increase in feminine employment and in two income families 2) A continues division of labor along gender lines 3) Reduction of familial as well as individual time 4) Rise of consumerism with family life 5) Individual returning home to their parents – Boomerang kids. 6) Individuals delay marriage The dual income family creates second working shift for the mothers. - Woman also often receive lower wages and suffer from the „glass ceiling” in their work environment preventing them from rising to the top. - 1970 a wave of woman‟s movement lead to the liberalization of attitudes concerning woman‟s role in society. - Woman now penetrated male dominated occupational fields such a law, medicine and physical sciences. - Quebec and Maritime provinces and the highest level of Maternal Employment and the Prairies had the lowest numbers. - Woman now Delay childbirth by at least one year  in order to earn high salaries in the prime of their career. - 30% of Men and 28% of woman engage in shift work  these people have higher reported levels of work-related stress and work overload. - Children whose parents have a non-standard working schedule have more social and economic difficulties. Domestic Division of Labor:  Sociologist Arlie Hochschild, in 1989 called “The Second Shift”  Under this concept woman work double  at home and at work.  Employed mothers are more time stressed than fathers  Children‟s Contributions to the household, in term of doing chores and taking care (even self-care) are important for the maternal employed.  When wives began to constitute a greater share of the household income it s common for families to hire domestic help. Maternal Employment and it‟s effects on children - Research has concluded that children whose mothers are employed do not have more negative outcomes than children of stay-at-home mothers. - Earning mothers provide for their children financially and may raise the standard to living, thus giving their children a comparative advantage. Effects of dual income household on children - Research has shown that as the mother‟s working hours increase, the father‟s interest in the children‟s activities rises as a Compensating Mechanism. - According to Coleman‟s Rational Theory: Situation in which parents are overworked children are deprived of social resources or social capital. - Another potential problem related to parents unemployment  parents who spend many hours at the office, and then spend their free time in career related activities, and to move upward socially. These parents do not spend quality time with their children. Economic changes on families can consist of “Time Crunch” - Time crunch involves too many activities crammed into too few hours to devote to their children. - The total time parents spend with their children has gone down significantly in two parent families– almost under 5 minutes for high and low income households. - Time spent per child may increase however, because people now have fewer children. The Rise of Consumerism in families Sociologist Thorsten Veblen developed “Conspicuous consumption” Families acquire possessions that are visibly conspicuous to give them a higher social status - however with rising technological changes it is harder for families to buy new products or replace old ones. The Working Poor: Are those people whose wages are too low to raise a family above the poverty line determined by the government. - Statistics Canada does a Market Basket Measure: based on a formula that includes cost of food, clothes, shelter and transportation for each region. - Low income families below the poverty line are also called LICOs – Low-income cut offs. - The Near Poor: Families who are struggling to stay above the poverty line, and any crisis could push them below the line immediately. - Depth: is another aspect of poverty, which constitutes how deep down families are below the poverty line. The Sources of poverty fall into 3 categories: - the systematic - structural - sources at a societal level Major Causes of family poverty 1) Loss of employment due to restructuring of labour markets – ex: outsourcing jobs to a different, cheaper country 2) Lack of creation of green industries that would create employment 3) Low paying and part-time jobs – not sufficient income for a living. 4) Timidity of our governments who fail to provide jobs 5) Greed of unions – who want to hire the “have‟s” rather than the “have nots” 6) Pay inequity by Gender: woman are less paid than men for similar jobs 7) Welfare for the Rich  in many places where high earners pay lower taxes than low-earners ex: Denmark 8) Inefficient social benefits for the family Canadian Aboriginal people Suffer from Substandard housing High unemployment Substance abuse Poverty Low incomes Alcoholism Inadequate health care Inadequate educational services - All resulting in a high chance of them living in poverty and/or below the poverty line - Domestic Violence is also widespread in Aboriginal households. The three main sociopersonal reason for poverty are: 1) Divorce 2) Single mother‟s running a household without fathers 3) Difficulties encountered by recent immigrant families - After divorce many woman‟s income plumages and they become poor, as they have to support their children on a reduced budget. - Families formed by single mother are both a result and source of poverty. - Mothers have consequences of poverty: a) raising their children in negative environments such as high-risk neighborhoods. b) Their children grow up with high delinquent peers c) Poor children are also affected in cognitive development, behavior problems and school progress Fathers:  Unemployed fathers in two-parent families are most negatively affected by poverty, they experience a great deal of pressure to support the family more adequately.  For married men  unemployment become a source of friction and tension leading to irritability between husbands and wives.  Divorced or Separated fathers who are too poor to support their offspring, distance themselves from their children  also know as “deadbeat dads” For Children: Early Child poverty can be most detrimental in terms of child‟s future status in society Persistent poverty  can lower a child‟s life chances and life course outcomes. - being at a disadvantage at an early age can lead to lack of coginitive development and antisocial behavior - the Depth of poverty exerts dramatic abilities on the child‟s abilities and performance  Children with family incomes below the poverty line are at a 50% more disadvantage. - Family characteristics such as love and nurturing , parental education and mental health and the child‟s activities particularly during adolescence are negatively effected with higher levels of poverty - Child‟s Characteristics  such as low birth weight, deficient cognitive abilities, hyperactivity, combined with poverty can have detrimental effects on the growth of the child. - It is economically advantageous for society to eliminate child poverty  so that the future generations , when these children grow up, do not fall back into the same vicious cycle of poverty again. Chapter 4 – Mandell. Immigrants coming to Canada belonged to over 200 ethnic backgrounds o Aboriginal Population of the western hemisphere has lived in the area for 30000 – 40000 years o Racialization: Process by which racial meanings are attached particular issues. o Colonialism: Is the economic and political domination of a region and its people by a foreign power. o Early aboriginal communiti
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