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Canada (158,336)
Sociology (1,671)
Chapter 10


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Western University
Sociology 2235
Gale Cassidy

Ch. 10 – Parent-Child Relationship and Child Socialization -Interaction, attachment, adaptation -Infants initiate many parental gestures (responses, reactions etc) which become part of babies environment that shapes their lifestyle/attitudes/beliefs -Within interactional and transactional + behaviour genetics perspectives, parents and children interact w/ and influence one another’s bhvrs and attitudes -Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth found that maternal depression and children’s bhvrial prblms interacted, worsening over time in a bidirectional pattern -Children are coproducers of their own development -Co agents in socialization process Parents Socialization Practices -Where parents ensure child understanding of and eventual internalization of society’s rules Social Constructs: parenting practices and parent-child interactions -Often contributes to mothers oppression -NA stresses democratic > authoritarian relations -“Standardization” -Literature/research on parents socialization practices fail to address the moral context of our society Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Authoritative: -Warmth, respect for child’s individuality, and psychological autonomy with monitoring of their activities and whereabouts -Firm, yet loving, involved and make demands for age-appropriate bhvrs -Parents explain reasons for their demands and consequences for not complying -Obedience -Rules and appropriate punishment (reasonable and when necessary increases effectiveness of reasoning for small children) -Warmth and monitoring correlated with successful child and adolescent outcomes -Monitoring related to lower rates of risky sexual activities, fewer bhvr prblms and higher academic achievement among adolescents -Less likely to engage in violent activities -Kerr and Stattin: adolescent’s willingness to disclose info to parents that allows them to be authoritative Authoritarian: -Control, restriction, at the extreme: coercion -Inconsistency -Harsh, threaten to punish but fail to follow thru next day -Demands, orders w/o explaining why Ch. 10 – Parent-Child Relationship and Child Socialization -Neither stimulates development of self-control nor does it respect children as persons -Not effective in NA but seen as guidance in other cultures No-Nonsense Parenting -Between authoritarian and authoritative -Common in black Canadians/amerians and caribbeans -Higher on control than authoritative but includes more warmth and nurturance -Signals to child parent is vigilant and care -Promotes sense of competence, regulation and lowers rates of detrimental bhvrs/attitudes -Better adolescent outcomes even though parents “HASSLE” them Permissive Parenting: -Few maturity demands -Children can behave as they wish -Fail to set rules, supervise -Either high level of warmth and acceptance or disinterest and rejection Uninvolved: -Either permissive and indifferent or permissive and rejecting -Lack of attn and don’t fulfill socialization function -Related to neg outcomes; delinquency, tolerate frustration poorly, likely underachievers, lack emotional control, long term goals and purpose in life -Neglectful, irresponsible parents, others abusive -Permissiveness more neg consequences than authoritarianism when there’s cultural and social instability -Times where child needs more guidance Wavering negotiating pattern style: -Parents do not guide their children (even toddlers), or make demands of them -Consult w/ children abt every step they undertake -When suggestions are made, they are changed as soon as child objects or disagrees -Never punish, very loving and involved -Misbehaviour is a “luxury” only better-off families can afford Question of what constitutes proper parenting -Social construction of proper parenting North America: authoritative style and decreasing control as adolescents age Dangerous neighbourhoods: no-nonsense or disciplinarian style appropriate to secure compliance, ensure safety and perceived as a form of concern Western phenomenon: valuation of independence creativity is a consequence of education, relative affluence, and safe environments -Parenting styles need to be adaptive to situations, (H or L control depends on child’s bhvr) -NA largely practices corporal/physical punishment Ch. 10 – Parent-Child Relationship and Child Socialization -Relationship btwn corporal punishment and low self-esteem, delinquency, aggressiveness and depression -Limitations in research -Failure to differentiate degree of punishment, heredity interaction, studies not longitudinal, does no inquiry remainder of parents socialization practices -In Western countries, physical punishment bad when child perceives it as parent rejection or when their overall relationship is bad -Not particular disciplinary practice that’s impt but context it occurs within -Worse for younger kids (times of difficult temperament) -Harsh physical punishment always seen as rejection and aggressiveness Determinants of Parents’ Socialization Practices Contextual Determinants: -Stress exp by mothers b/c of martial or economic prblms leads to a more erratic, punishing, and disciplinary relationship w/ children -Harsh disciplinary practices  insufficient resources -Parents exp an erosion of their authority Cultural Determinants: -Beliefs abt proper ways of raising children -May originate from way parents were themselves raised Personalities and Adaptation to Children: -Patient, calm, affectionate, sense of humour, businesslike  authoritative or no nonsense techniques -Constructive parenting maintained across generations b/c of offspring’s positive adjustment that follows -Parents unconsciously adapt their practices to fit their children’s bhvrs, personalities, and abilities -Early oppositional and defiant bhvrs undermine later parenting nurturance and practices -Parenting practices affect children more than their deviant bhvrs affect aspects of parenting (until mid adolescence) Parent-Adolescent Relationship -Problematic adolescence most common in Western societies -Stress and storm -Cultural > biological entity -Teenagehood is a historical phenomenon -A social construction -Adolescent crisis in part created by type of environment that’s evolved in most western countries How do parents and adolescents get along? -15% report daily arguments -40% report weekly or more frequent arguments -Adolescents report more conflict than parents Ch. 10 – Parent-Child Relationship and Child Socialization -Source of adolescent’s unhappiness was mainly at peer group level
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