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Canada (161,878)
Sociology (1,780)
Chapter 6

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2235
Professor
Gale Cassidy
Semester
Summer

Description
Ch. 6 – Roles of Educational Institutions and Religious Participation in Family Life -Schools second most named source of past misery (after peers) -Rarely referred to as a key source of happiness -Religion a dominant role in a minority of students -Majority; membership, general beliefs > active participation -Students from asian, middle eastern countries; religion as central theme Educational System: An Overview -Primary school attendance became compulsory btwn 1840-1890 -Middle class benefitted; working/rural class suffered from loss of children’s labour/wage -First part of 20 century; schooling finally spread to all classes equally 1891; 41% of Quebec illiterate, 18% Ontario -First charitable infant school (1828) daycare (1858) opened in Montreal -Toronto; daycare first opened in 1857 -Spread slowly; low # of poor wage-earning mothers -Early edu focused on emotional and social development -1960s till now; intellectual development -Canada; most kids now begin school earlier than 40 years ago -Institutions took over education function traditionally performed by parents -At younger ages (Some as young as 6 weeks) -Parents have to do far more planning now -Schools main agent of socialization after parents -Muslim society schools emphasize religion Child Care: Quality and Outcomes Definition: Care given to a child by a person other than his or her primary caregiver -Primary caregiver usually mother -Lack of government funded child care facilities, long waiting lists -Esp. subsidized care -Quebec best system; inexpensive but lack of places to meet demand -Only 18.6% in all of Canada able to receive care -20.3% aged 0-5 -77% of mothers w/ child (3-5) working -More bhvrial problems for children w/ multiple non-parental child care arrangements -Difficult adapting to a variety of inconsistent rules -Affluent families least likely to choose care by relatives High quality child care: -Low child to caregiver ratio -More child-adult interaction -Availability of activities, toys, educational materials, space -Nutritous food, age-appropriate structuring of activities; naps -Integrated educational component -Qualifications of caregiver -Low salaries=high turnover  instability in child’s life -Turnover rate: ~40% per year -ECE median salary; 25,100-27,366 -Non profit centers = higher quality, lower turnover, better trained Ch. 6 – Roles of Educational Institutions and Religious Participation in Family Life -Need to be satisfied w/ working conditions Effects of Child Care on Children Poor quality care: -Disadvantages in: cognition and language, social and emotional adjustment -Family characteristics need to be taken into consideration -Mother’s low educational level -Detrimental housing situation -Parents have to choose quality of care according to their income -When family variables are controlled; quality of daycare produces small but evident difference Meta-analysis: -Daycare centres have no major impact on development of children coming from avg homes -Disadvantaged homed children; quality child care supply missing elements (beneficial) -Particularly school achievement -Day cared children; more self-confident, assertive, expressive, helpful, less timid -Compared to other types of care -Nonmaternally cared children; less polite, agreeable, compliant with requests, more irritable, aggressive, boisterous -At older age, higher score on externalizing problems -Also influenced by too much peer contact, too many hrs spent ECE for Children in Low-Income Families -Unprepared for grade 1, fall behind -Headstart; raised level of disadvantaged school children’s readiness -Canada; Aboriginal head start Head start reports: (compared with non-head starters) -Short-term IQ boost (few years) -Grade 1; perform better than other students -Small % placed in special ed (remedial) -1/5 head starts retained in grade, 1/3 control group retained -More graduate from HS -More eventually employed -Improvement in family interaction, health, nutritional status, socioemotional adjustment -Pos effects on cognition and school achievement still evident at age 15 -Reduced abuse / neglect until 17 -Full day programs more beneficial than half day -Start preschool as early as possible (disadvantaged children) -Early intervention is key -Prevent loss of early gains (that carry through to when they’re older) -Beyond 3:30 by Toronto Community Foundation -Head start programs excellent investment for societies w/ large pool of disadvantaged families -Remedial and preventative -Skills develop early, used throughout school years How this benefits us in the future -Lower delinquency/crime Ch. 6 – Roles of Educational Institutions and Religious Participation in Family Life -Greater employment -Better health -Lower risk of poverty Effects of Child Care on Parents -Expensive care reduces well-being (too big a proportion) -Depletes resources for other impt things -Prevents parents from having second child -Low quality care cause parents to worry at work -Child care availability, affordability, quality are key ingredients in parents’ well-being -3 aspects can improve family life (parents can go to work, lower absenteeism, turnover) Schools and Families -Family characteristics (SES): dictate type of school attended Rational theory: schools serving as effective community add resilience to a child whose family is experiencing a stressful situation -Contributes to health and behavioural outcomes (prosocial schools) -Teachers may counterbalance or exacerbate neg familial environments -More schooling=larger cognitive growth -Vulnerable children who attend good schools likely to associate with the few difficult students -Reinforces neg tendencies -Female teens attending schools w/ large % of disadvantaged students more likely to become pregnant -Different SES -Poverty reduces test scores (lots of single parent family schools) -Kids from female-headed families attending two parent family schools see an increase in test scores -More resources -Environment dictates growth Parental Involvement (Motivation) -Related to children’s achievement, fewer behavioural problems -Support and prepare children -Aboringal communities; involve elders (cultural continuity) -“Partnership” btwn teachers and parents -Equality; but teachers only approve of meetings they initiate -Raise achievement, expectations, aspirations Parent’s Higher Social Class Involvement Theory of resources: parent’s social class equips them w/ an unequal set of resources that differentially affect their ability to be involved in their children’s education -Greater resources to meet requests (advantage for children) -Self-confident, request changes, competence to help children overcome difficulties -Question teachers decisions Ch. 6 – Roles of Educational Institutions and Religious Participation in Family Life Concerted Cultivation: (parenting style of middle-class parents) deliberately stimulate development of their children’s cognitive and social skills by fostering large vocabularies, familiarity with abstract concepts, and negotiating abilities -Observed in most ethnic groups -But, smaller proportion of blacks/aboriginals are middle class (less likely among them) -Stems from individualistic, competitive, middle class western edu -Enroll kids w/ psychologists, summer camps, supplies, music lessons, tutors -Expectations of personal entitlement, prepare for work world -New Zealand learning style passive; taught to not question elders Barriers to Low-Income Parents’ Involvement -Value edu same as their wealthier counterparts -Low achievement expectations  lowering child’s aspirations *Parental expectations key predictor of school achievement (beginning in grade 1) -Stigmatized by teachers -Parents not always competent (child may be resistant, not confident of parents ability) -Parents may have the best intentions but struggle to provide for their family Families’ Social Class and Children’s Achievement -Children from families of high SES *Perform better in reading, writing, mathematics -Holds truth internationally -High parental participation, greater achievement, alleviates economic deficit Theory of social capital holds truth -Positive effects of effective community -Parental interaction w/ one another serves as reinforcement -Students who receive more emotional support from parents benefit more from socioemotional resources at school Family-School Compatibility -Cultural diversity of Canada contributes to success of minority-group children -Family life sim to skill set required by school system = greater success Ex. Schedule: rules, eat breakfast, edu activities encouraged -These children more easily integrated into school system -Structure more likely for employed adult
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