Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Sociology (1,671)
Chapter 2


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Western University
Sociology 2235
Gale Cassidy

Ch. 2 – History and Cultural Diversity of Canadian Families (Ambert) PART 2 – Current Diversity of Canadian Families -58% of immigrants from Asian and Middle East countries (2001-2006) -16% European -Foreign born in 2006 accounted for 20% of Canadian population -75% non-white minority (recent immigrants) -Highest to lowest: China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Iran, Sri Lanka, South Asia Aboriginal Families (5% of Canadian Population) -In 2006, 3.8%, 1.2 million -Mostly First Nations (60% of Aboriginals) -High fertility rates (esp. Inuit: avg 3.4 children/ woman) -58% lives on reserves Band: primary unit of social structure Past: Small cultural and linguistic groups who lived or came tgt at various times of the year Present: Administrative unit that operates under the Indian Act of 1876 -Currently 621 bands -Adoption and welfare study: 20% of children in state care Aboriginal -Children taken away from Aboriginal families of poverty -“Sixties scoop” -1980s: last residential school closed -Extended families provided social identity, economic support, and psychological nurturing -Kin networks twice as extensive as those of other Canadians -Help of kin is one reason why victims under reported their violent situations -Elders respected, tradition and wisdom -Elder care and visits carried out by women, daughters -Aboriginal elders face more hardships than other Canadian elders and suffer abuse -Income below poverty line, support their unemployed children -Disability rates twice the national avg -Nursing care facilities rare forcing many to live in nursing homes far away from family and friends -Reported health, fair or less than fair, 3x more likely -Self-determination, self-government -Gambling as a means of expanding their economy -Renewing of traditional knowledge, culture, customs, language -Take charge of social services, child welfare -Healing groups, Aboriginal based curriculum -Cree, Inuktitut, Ojibway Quebecois Families 1960s: -Finance and industrialization -French language in the workplace Ch. 2 – History and Cultural Diversity of Canadian Families (Ambert) -Catholic Church’s domination of education and influence over moral issues replaced by secular govn’t control (divorce legalized) -Women’s rights; property, education, legal -Nationalism, pronatalism, feminism 1985: 300+ women’s groups involved in political action -Marriage rates plummeted: 8.2 – 2.7 (national avg 5) -Highest divorce rates currently -Married couple families: 69% compared to 80% rest of Canada -Decline in birth rate: large nuclear families replaced by smaller ones -Many single or cohabiting parents -Past: exceptionally high reproductive levels to now historical lows -Nationalists concerned w/ decline of Francophone population rd -1980s-90s: financial rewards for women who had children ($500, $1000, $8000 for 3 +) -Family allowance for children under 18, additional allowance under 6 Feminists argued… -Govn’t supporting traditional family structure where women are valued primarily for their domestic role -However, pronatal policies did not increase birt rate -Abandoned for pro-family policies -Subsidized day care programs -Follows formal, age appropriate curriculum -Only province committed to ECE and not just day care -56% of fathers availed to parental leave compared w/ 11% in rest of Canada Black-Canadian Families (2.5%) -Foreign: Caribbean, Americas, Africa -Differ in history, language, geography, social exp, family structure, RELIGION, and reasons for emigration 1960s: Racial barriers removed from immigration laws -Increase in # of black families -48% of black persons are Canada born -Foreign born: 26% Jamaica, 15% Haiti -Third largest non-white minority group -Unequal pay and unemployment particularly for women, $7500 less than other Canadians w/ same education -Tighter connections to extended kin -Relatives have a sense of entitlement, draining family resources -Low SES/employment opportunities = family breakdown -Black spouses (esp. working class) more likely to be separated/divorced, not formally married (Applies to U.S. and Caribbean also) -Less importance on marriage as context for childbearing -BUT, upper-class blacks, marry before children (applies to Caribbean) -High divorce rate, nonmarital births = black families headed by a woman -Children 3x more likely to be living in low-income, single parent family Imbalance in gender ratio of potential males avail: low marriage rates Ch. 2 – History and Cultural Diversity of Canadian Families (Ambert) -Greater tendency for black men to enter interracial marriages -History admitted massive # of black women as domestics -Black female domestics denied reproductive freedom and marriage -Result: deportation -Thus, their children left behind to grandmothers who raised and loved them -Many sponsored by mothers and arrived in large Canadian cities (Toronto, Montreal), winter, to live with the mother they barely knew who typically had a live-in bf or another child -Most children had terrible relationships and were distant from their mothers and upset they had to leave their grandmother -High-density, low income neighbourhood (gangs) -Thriving  Resilience and adaptive ability Chinese-Canadian Families Marriage and Fertility in China -Shaped by Confucianism in the past -Marriage partners based on family needs and values > attraction and love -Groom: bride price -Bride: dowry -Women barred from public life, few employment opportunities, 90% illiterate -Sold daughters into servitude to pay the bride price for sons wedding -Patrilineal, patrilocal, patriarchal People’s Republic of China (1949): -Replaced traditional family structures w/ democratic marriage system -Arranged marriages abolished -Monogamy -Rights and interests of women and children protected -Child betrothal abolished, women 20, men 22 before marriage could be contracted -Discouraged patrilocal residence -Fertility rates r
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