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Chapter 4

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Western University
Sociology 2235
Paul Whitehead

MANDELL CHAPTER 4 Immigrants coming to Canada belonged to over 200 ethnic backgrounds o Aboriginal Population of the western hemisphere has lived in the area for 30000 – 40000 years o Racialization: Process by which racial meanings are attached particular issues. o Colonialism: Is the economic and political domination of a region and its people by a foreign power. o Early aboriginal communities were based on Foraging, hunting, fishing, horticulture and agriculture o Early societies were nomadic and semi-nomadic characterized by collective work effort with minimal hierarchies and generalized sharing of resources. th o Family system of the Huron Indians in the 17 century  Both woman and Men participated in Childcare o Aboriginal Groups valued ties to the kin not just the nuclear family  also had string norms about gift giving and reciprocity. o The family systems in Huron tended to lean toward Matriliny: Accounting for family relations through the female kin. o Also indulged in Matrilocal Residence: consisting of Clans headed by woman and men moving in with their wives’ clan. o The Matrilineal Kin organizations worked to create relatively egalitarian gender relations , with separate roles for men and woman o As summarized by Mees: Huron had a flexible understanding of family and sexual relationships. o Family violence was also rare, due to the egalitarian roles of both men and woman o Divorce was relatively easy as well as the woman did not reply on the men for food sources in these Matrilineal clans. Other aboriginal population lived in harsher conditions  such as the Arctic Inuit and Inupiat. - Inuit Kin relations were flexible with gathering, hunting and fishing based on the seasonal availability of food in the harsh Arctic climates. Analysis if the Huron by Anderson  Relies on the political economy perspective - Central to the political economy perspective, also known and the Marxist or Materialist theory) is analyzing link between the family and the economy - Economies with the ownership of private property tend to be less Egalitarian than those with no private ownership of property - In Huron both men and woman contributed equally to the economy hence there was gender equality - In contrast our contemporary society is a capitalist economy  they rely on woman to take care of the households and work in the workforce - Socialist Feminists also add to this Classic political theory or the Marxist view  how not only capitalist but men benefit from this gendered division of labor. - Double Day: of paid and unpaid work is a feature of woman belonging to a capitalist economy. - For Aboriginal the lack of private property, reliance on the extended kin and relative gender equality defined their society. Post-Colonial Family lives: - Centuries following the initial contact with colonizers, the aboriginal population suffered from Internal Colonialism  characterized by continued subjugation of Aboriginal people defined as racially inferior. - Racialization was a key part of the colonialism and consisted of “Othering” of population that was considered inferior in biology and in culture. - One element of racialization was the Homogenization of the Aboriginal peoples  they were decimated to just 3 aboriginal populations - The 3 main aboriginal populations were a) The First Nations b) Metis c) Inuit -The colonizers inflicted upon the aboriginals a Residential School System  Imposed on the first nations and the Inuit, the children were taken away from their families to be schooled by “non aboriginals”. By the time the last schools closed  there had been losses of life due to malnourishment, poor conditions and diseases. - An apology was sent out by Stephen Harper in 2008 31% of general Canadian population consists of youth below the age of 24. - The median age for non-aboriginal groups is 27, while for aboriginal groups it is 40 , because they have higher than average birth rates and their children are more likely to live with parents or grandparents. Benson: - Canadian Aboriginal families have suffered Disenfranchisement : where children have been separated from parents and grandparents by the government in large numbers. - He also identifies the concept of Resiliency with aboriginal families: referring to families that thrive even if they have been exposed to severe adversity. Black families and Colonial Legacy - Canada was a part of the Atlantic Slave Trade: having built 60 slave ships for the British Slave trade. - The first African Slave named Olivier de Jeune Arrived in Quebec in 1628. - Although New France has abolished slavery it flourished under the French and British till the 1800s - Many African American Children had be kidnapped to become slaves - Young females suffered exploitation at the hands of their owners  essentially that of any white male - They were involved in the “breeding of Children” to use as slaves. - After the abolition of slavery different groups of black immigrants came to Canada – a group known as Black Loyalists who escaped to New Bruswick, Nova Scotia and Ontario escaping slavery from the U.S.A. - However like their American counterparts, Canadian blacks faced the worst job conditions  only to be dismantled after the Civil Rights movement leading to human rights legislations in the 1960’s and 1970’s. - One of the challenges for Black families living in a racist society is how to raise children who are physically and emotionally stable: Racial Socialization: a Socialization process found developing children’s and youths pride in themselves and their group. Some researcher present that racial and Ethnic identity develops in four stages: 1) Ethnic/Racial Awareness in early childhood 2) Ambivalence in adolescence  characterized by preference for mainstream norms and distancing from one’s group 3) Emergence in late adolescence and early adulthood  individuals seek connections to their groups 4) Ethnic/Racial incorporation in adult years: in which many identity conflicts are resolved. Immigrant Families  Canada admits people under the Temporary Foreign Worker status more
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