MANDELL CHAPTER 4
Immigrants coming to Canada belonged to over 200 ethnic backgrounds
o Aboriginal Population of the western hemisphere has lived in the area for 30000 –
o Racialization: Process by which racial meanings are attached particular issues.
o Colonialism: Is the economic and political domination of a region and its people by a
o Early aboriginal communities were based on Foraging, hunting, fishing, horticulture
o Early societies were nomadic and semi-nomadic characterized by collective work
effort with minimal hierarchies and generalized sharing of resources.
o Family system of the Huron Indians in the 17 century Both woman and Men
participated in Childcare
o Aboriginal Groups valued ties to the kin not just the nuclear family also had string
norms about gift giving and reciprocity.
o The family systems in Huron tended to lean toward Matriliny: Accounting for
family relations through the female kin.
o Also indulged in Matrilocal Residence: consisting of Clans headed by woman and
men moving in with their wives’ clan.
o The Matrilineal Kin organizations worked to create relatively egalitarian gender
relations , with separate roles for men and woman
o As summarized by Mees: Huron had a flexible understanding of family and sexual
o Family violence was also rare, due to the egalitarian roles of both men and woman
o Divorce was relatively easy as well as the woman did not reply on the men for food
sources in these Matrilineal clans.
Other aboriginal population lived in harsher conditions such as the Arctic Inuit and
- Inuit Kin relations were flexible with gathering, hunting and fishing based on the
seasonal availability of food in the harsh Arctic climates.
Analysis if the Huron by Anderson Relies on the political economy perspective
- Central to the political economy perspective, also known and the Marxist or
Materialist theory) is analyzing link between the family and the economy
- Economies with the ownership of private property tend to be less Egalitarian than
those with no private ownership of property
- In Huron both men and woman contributed equally to the economy hence there was
- In contrast our contemporary society is a capitalist economy they rely on woman
to take care of the households and work in the workforce
- Socialist Feminists also add to this Classic political theory or the Marxist view
how not only capitalist but men benefit from this gendered division of labor.
- Double Day: of paid and unpaid work is a feature of woman belonging to a capitalist
economy. - For Aboriginal the lack of private property, reliance on the extended kin and relative
gender equality defined their society.
Post-Colonial Family lives:
- Centuries following the initial contact with colonizers, the aboriginal population
suffered from Internal Colonialism characterized by continued subjugation of
Aboriginal people defined as racially inferior.
- Racialization was a key part of the colonialism and consisted of “Othering” of
population that was considered inferior in biology and in culture.
- One element of racialization was the Homogenization of the Aboriginal peoples
they were decimated to just 3 aboriginal populations
- The 3 main aboriginal populations were
a) The First Nations
-The colonizers inflicted upon the aboriginals a Residential School System
Imposed on the first nations and the Inuit, the children were taken away from their
families to be schooled by “non aboriginals”.
By the time the last schools closed there had been losses of life due to
malnourishment, poor conditions and diseases.
- An apology was sent out by Stephen Harper in 2008
31% of general Canadian population consists of youth below the age of 24.
- The median age for non-aboriginal groups is 27, while for aboriginal groups it is 40 ,
because they have higher than average birth rates and their children are more likely to
live with parents or grandparents.
- Canadian Aboriginal families have suffered Disenfranchisement : where children
have been separated from parents and grandparents by the government in large
- He also identifies the concept of Resiliency with aboriginal families: referring to
families that thrive even if they have been exposed to severe adversity.
Black families and Colonial Legacy
- Canada was a part of the Atlantic Slave Trade: having built 60 slave ships for the
British Slave trade.
- The first African Slave named Olivier de Jeune Arrived in Quebec in 1628.
- Although New France has abolished slavery it flourished under the French and British
till the 1800s
- Many African American Children had be kidnapped to become slaves
- Young females suffered exploitation at the hands of their owners essentially that
of any white male - They were involved in the “breeding of Children” to use as slaves.
- After the abolition of slavery different groups of black immigrants came to Canada –
a group known as Black Loyalists who escaped to New Bruswick, Nova Scotia and
Ontario escaping slavery from the U.S.A.
- However like their American counterparts, Canadian blacks faced the worst job
conditions only to be dismantled after the Civil Rights movement leading to
human rights legislations in the 1960’s and 1970’s.
- One of the challenges for Black families living in a racist society is how to raise
children who are physically and emotionally stable:
Racial Socialization: a Socialization process found developing children’s and youths
pride in themselves and their group.
Some researcher present that racial and Ethnic identity develops in four stages:
1) Ethnic/Racial Awareness in early childhood
2) Ambivalence in adolescence characterized by preference for mainstream
norms and distancing from one’s group
3) Emergence in late adolescence and early adulthood individuals seek
connections to their groups
4) Ethnic/Racial incorporation in adult years: in which many identity conflicts are
Canada admits people under the Temporary Foreign Worker status more