Textbook Notes (368,316)
Canada (161,798)
Sociology (1,770)

Stuffed and Starved – Patel Ch 6.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Sociology 2239
Alissa Mazar

Stuffed and Starved – Patel Ch. 6 – Better Living Through Chemistry • The central problem in the food chain • Following WWII, hunger was tackled through the export of the IS food surplus, until it began to falter • New system in which the private sector had an expanded role – breakthroughs in agricultural research made possible the increased output of the staples of wheat, corn and rice in the South • Demanded irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides – depended on fossil fuels for their production – known as the Green Revolution • In some places widespread hunger was kept in check • India and the US worked cooperated closely in agriculture launching a new Agricultural Knowledge Initiative • Will invest $100 million US to improve farming technology (to promote ties between American and Indian scientists) • India was given considerably less freedom than Bush would like to admit • 1950-60’s the US was keen to not see India fall to Communism – as a result India was a major recipient of food aid • India wanted a change in land ownership to pit the government • Indians in rural areas were suffering – imports of cheap wheat strained farmers • By the time food aid came to an end in the 1970’s, the US owned over 1/3 of the Indian rupee money supply • The ever-growing gap between the haves and the have-nots provoked riots • 1965 the renewal of India’s food aid was switched from annually to a month-to- month system • If India did what the US wanted, they would get their food aid • Green Revolution was the solution that fit the constraints, but if the recipient countries do not do what is best for them, food aid could be cut off over night • The seeds required irrigation, leading to competition for water, which has resulted in groundwater levels dropping at over one foot a year in some areas • Irrigation led to increased salt deposits in the soil, making land unusable • The cost of fertilizer could only be borne by those farmers who were able to access credit • India is severely in debt to the US as a result of the Green Revolution – however the only thing worse than having the Green Revolution was not having it • Over the course of the 1990’s, malnutrition increased in India, the average calorie intake declined among India’s poorest • Today, 233 million Indians are undernourished • The Public Distribution System (PDS) was targeted at providing cheap food in urban areas – at its height, distributed 18.8 million tons of coarse cereals to more than 80 million people • PM Singh wanted to dismantle PDS • PDS expanded in the wake of the 1943 Bengal famine, in which over 3 million people died even though there was enough food in Bengal to feed them • It wasn’t the absence of food, but the ability to buy it • Those who owned food hoarded it, knowing that less food meant higher food prices • Those in a position to control the distribution of grain will only do so if they’re able to command a sufficiently high price • Only way to overcome famine is through a functioning democracy • Singh wanted to introduce a second Green Revolution – based not on fertilizers and improved seed, but biotechnology • Key feature of the WTO were rights to allow for one individual or organization to own ideas and to charge anyone else for using them • Pesticide companies are now the world’s largest owners of seed companies – seeds are developed as an extension of the Knowledge Initiative pesticide product line • Like the software industry, the pesticide industry has gone to great lengths to prevent its property being stolen • The pesticide industry has developed ‘terminator technology’, a series of genetic modifications designed to make the seeds produced by one of its plants sterile • The first Green Revolution was driven more by governmental concerns from which the private sector benefited • The second Green Revolution is spear-headed by the private sector, with governments acting more as facilitators • The private sector is exposed to demands of public accountability • Three-prong strategy has emerged in response to the range of criticisms of pesticide companies • To produce crops that are directed precisely at poor people • To increase the amount of science that justifies their current operation • Corporations have tried to use and shape the ‘culture wars’ in order to make their case • The problem with these corporations lies
More Less

Related notes for Sociology 2239

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.