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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Deviance .docx

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Western University
Sociology 2259
Lauren Barr

Chapter8ReligionMarxreligionthe opiate of the massesbreeds false consciousnessan obstacle to the truthprevents pros from becoming a class for itself and revolting against the bourgWhat is ReligionPeople use religion to determine the truth Beliefs anything you personally think is true Belief systemsorganized set of interrelated beliefs Can be individual or shared ie Group ideologies Religious belief systems RBSbased on truths about supreme beings the supernatural realm superhumanbeings or the sacred cosmosa being or beings that are far more powerfulmore knowing than humans are and that are capable of influencing our lives in significant ways The study of religious deviance Many RBS claim their version of truth is the only correct one Refusing to follow religious truth results in the individual being socially typed as deviant and made subject to forms of social control Social typing process emerged when people reject the right belief system and adopt the wrong one or when people fail to act into accordance with moral codeCan also be directed at religious institutions or actions taking place within religious institutions Two types of social typing in religious deviancereligion as devianceacts of deviance that occur within religious groups or groups themselves considered deviant religion as the social typer of devianceRBS or way they are applied dictate to us who should be considered deviant and what the consequences should be What do sociologists study in religious deviancenote RBSa matter of faith social analyses explore the social embeddedness of RBS not whether they are truethe processes by which RBS emerge th role that religion plays in peoples lives and the relationships between religion and other social structuresprocesses ie Stratification dont analyze beliefs but religion as a social organizer based on RBS look at the factors that influence people to participate in organized religion perceptions that people have of specific religions and the actions carried out by religious institutions the sociocultural aspects Religion as DevianceDeviant Religions According to traditional typologies Four categories of religious groupsdeviance is determined by which category a group belongs to 1Ecclesiasstate religions entire nationmembersA specific RBS is adopted at a government level and becomes the nations official religion Ex Islam in Iran Anglican in England Lutheran in Sweden Some nations have an ecclesia but also allow freedom of religion England while others declare nonecclesiastic religions as outlawed ie EU in MA2Churches nonofficial large powerful groups Worlds major religions Islam Judaism Hinduism Buddhism Christianity Well established bureaucratized complex hierarchies of leadershipadmin and formalized ritualspractices millions of members world wide Further subdivided into denominationsie Diff types of Christianity Catholicism Islam sunni and Judaism orthodox 1Chapter8Religion3Sects smaller religious groups that have broken away from larger churches at some point in history Less established fewer members more rigid doctrine formed in reaction to doctrine of larger church require higher levels of commitment from members clothing behaviour foodEx The Amish reject modern tech and live in communal settings and Hutteritesoffshoots of Christianity Talibanbroke from mainstream IslamScientology is a sect but it is NOT an offshoot of major religions 4Cults handful of members Doctrine is more reactionaryoppositional and intense levels of commitment are required from members Single charismatic leader serves as source of inspirationconvinces followers that secret to salvation is found in the group Ex Branch Davidians Heavens Gate Children of God Which are deviantEcclesia is not deviant in nation but some may try to deviantize them via deviance dance Churches are perceived s normal but again different religions attempt to deviantize other churchesEx Deviance dance between Christian church and Islam led to Crusadesseries of battles ththlasting from 11 CE to 16 CEoDance continues todaysome Islamic groups describe Christian church as heathen and some Christian and secular groups describe Islam as terrorist Sects and cultsfewer members and more isolated from mainstream and have reactionaryoppositional doctrineare the groups traditionally tped as deviant and in need of social control religious groups characterized by high levels of tension with the broader societydeviant those with low levels of tensionnormalThe Deviant World of SectsCults based on tensionocults are more deviantbased on novel beliefs while sects tend to have more traditional belief system as their foundationSects ohigh levels of commitmentstrict control of lifeomembers who fail to conform are punished most extreme being excommunication owhy seem weirddeviant to outside worlddont know why people would be willing to tolerate high levels of control over their lives odiversitysome sects are more rigid than others odegree of tension varies alsowhich determines social control and deviantization othe level of tension experience by a particular sect is determined by three factors1 DIFFERENCEThe magnitude of differences between the sect and society 2 ANTAGONISMThe level of antagonism that the sects feels for society 3 SEPARATIONThe extent to which the sect separates itself from the larger world oex Seventh Day Adventists v Jehovahs Witnesses thoboth formed in 17 CE and based on apocalyptic visions odifferenceJehovah Witness experience higher levels of tensionantagonism and separationoJW2
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