Women predicted to live to 81. 4 years. Men predicted to live to 75. 9 years. If consider factors of smoking, unprotected sex, alcohol consumption then no. Normal range of age at death for women/men is much greater than gap separating the two genders. Within variation-> comparing males to males, females to females. Remembering research methods when studying gender differences: After hearing scout master abusing scouts some people will claim that homosexuals are pedophiles. Pedophilia is a constant not a variable. Sexual orientation is the cause (independent variable) and pedophilia is the dependent variable. Women with superior math abilities earn equal or higher wages compared to men. Duffy, warren, walsh found that female mathematics teachers interact with male students more than female. Sex is a biological trait (estrogen for female, tester one for male) Gender is socially constructed-> based on norms/expectations of gender appropriate behavior. Gender can be seen as achieved status. Gender identity-> perception of yourself as male/female.