Sociology 1020 Chapter Notes -Rural Sociology, Dominant Culture, Sick Role
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Sociology 1020: Culture 4/13/2012 11:23:00 AM
the word culture as we use it here is a system of behaviors, beliefs,
knowledge, practices and values.
Objects of culture may be contested when they become instruments of
oppression or discrimination.
Culture involves traditions but is not confined by them because it changes
Authenticity is a problem when colonial society studies a colonized culture
and claims having studied the cultures traditions, to hold the keys of its
All culture ultimately, is contested.
Dominant Culture versus Subculture and Counterculture:
- dominants are people most closely linked to the dominant culture
- power and wealth tend to be concentrated in large cities, and central
Canada has become the home to the countries two most metropolitan areas,
Toronto and Montreal.
- feminists (both male and female) argue that Canada‟s dominant culture is
- proven that the closer you are too power the fewer females there are.
- age plays a factor in Canada‟s dominant culture as well.
- also factors such as sexual orientation, levels of education, and disability
could set you outside of the dominant culture.
- Canada‟s dominant culture is: English speaking, hetero-sexual , male ,
university graduate of European background between the ages of 25-55, in
good health, who owns a home in a middle class neighborhood of a city in
Ontario or Quebec.
- Subculture: minor cultural differences possessed by groups organized
around occupations or hobbies, engages in no significant opposition or
challenge to the dominant group.
groups that reject elements of dominant culture.
Ex. Hippies, bikers, Goths ect.
Their opposition to dominant culture is expressed most commonly in their
clothing and overall appearance, but what must be kept in mind is that it
goes well beyond this visual aspect.
High Culture versus Popular Culture:
high culture is the culture of the elite, a distinct minority.
Associated with theater, opera, music , ballet and serious works of literature
your would have to have studied in post secondary to understand.
Also sometimes referred to as elite culture.
Culture capital defines the knowledge and skills needed to acquire the
sophisticated tastes that mark someone as a person of high culture.
the more cultural capital one has, the higher class they are in.
popular culture, it the culture of the majority
these are people who do not have power
ex. Working class, less educated, women, and racial minorities.
Mass culture and Popular culture:
pop culture and mass culture differ in terms of agency.
Simulacra are cultural images often associated with stereo types that are
produced and reproduced like material goods by the media and sometimes
Ex. Intuits rubbing their noses together “eskimo kiss”
These images tend to distort contemporary reality.
Victimology has two meanings in sociology:
1. The study within criminology of people who are victims of crime
2. The second is an outlook that diminishes the victims of crime portraying
them as people who cannot help themselves or exercise their own agency.
norms are rules or standards of behavior in which are expected of groups,
society or culture.
Norms are expressed in culture through various means, from ceremonies
that reflect cultural mores to symbolic articles of dress.
Positive Sanction: reaction that supports a behavior
Ex. A reward for doing something right, a smile, a high five, a supportive
Negative Sanction: reaction designed to tell offenders they have violated a
Ex. A “dirty look”, rolling of the eyes, mild sarcastic joke”.
- one of the three kinds of norms
- a folkway is a norm which governs day to day matters
- these norms are norms wich in the course of things you “should not”
- these are the least respected and most weakly sanctioned
- etiquette is commonly closely connected to folkways.
-ex. Double dipping chips.
- norms that are taken much more seriously then folkways
- rules you “ must not” violate.
- some mores: against rape, killing, vandalism, stealing
-norm so deeply ingrained in our social consciousness that the thought or
mention of it is enough to arouse disgust or revulsions.
- ex. cannibalism, incest and child pornography
- symbols are cultural items, either tangible or intangible that take on
tremendous meaning in a culture or subculture.
- they can be non- material objects such as songs of the memory of an
Symbols of ethnic identity:
- flag is a symbol of ethnic identity.