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Chapter 7

Sociology 1020 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Tomboy, Determinism, Liberal Feminism

Course Code
SOC 1020
Kim Luton

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Introduction to Sociology
Chapter 7
07 November 2011
Biological and Social Determinism:
- human behaviour is influnced by both culture and biology
- nurture implies a possibility of change, while nature is more fixed - an how the
weight assigned to one factor or the other varies with the specific behaviour
being explained
- women could expect to live 81, when men is 76
- since when deaths from preventable causes, such as unsafe sex, poor driving,
smoking, and excessive drinking, are factored out, the gap reverses and men
have a slight advantage
- social variables also affect the gender gap
- different sized gaps in different ethnic groups in the same society also suggest
social influnences
- five and a half year ga does not mean that all women outlive all men
- within variation (comparing males to males or females to females)
- between variation (comparing males to females)
Numeracy and literacy differences:
- gender imbalances in post-secondary education are well documented
- female students are overrepresent in the humanities and social sciences, while
male students are the majority in mathematics, technology and sciences
- girls do not take as amny advanced math courses as boys do
- even when they do, a faster tate of acceleration for high school boys, despite
relative gender equality in elementary school
- girls use computers less at school than do boys
- although womean ear significantly less money than men, possesssion of math
skills lead to significant wage premiums across the groups of workers, and
women with superior math abilites enjoy wage premiums equal to or greater than

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those of men
- just as men and women have different body mass, strength, and a
preponderance of certain hormones, there are difference in their brain function
- between variation and ignore the greater within varation, a situation
compounded when lower expectations in math for women lead to their lessend
abilites in self-fulfilling prophecy
- Rosenfeld, a feminist scholar, said that all research on gender differences
should be context-specific, encourage cross-cultural extensions, look for
similarities as well as idfferences, examine variation within as well as between
groups, and go beyond gender as a category perse to see it as one of many
bases of inequality
- when researchers repeatedly find little or no inequality, the should accept this,
she said
- despite not finding inequality it still must exist begins to turn research into
Sex and Gender: Some Definitions:
- a person's sex is a biological trait characterized by the XX chromosomes and
estrogen for a female, and the XY chromosomes and testosterone for a male
- gender is a social struct bases in part on definition of masculity and femininity
and consisting largely of the norms and expectations that encourage people to
behave in a "sex appropriate" manner
- gender can be likened to achieved statuses to highlight this greater flexibility
- how much of it is sex and how much of it is gender?
- gender idenity is the preception, developed probably by age 3, of oneself as
male or female
- gendered order is a marco-level concept and refers not to individuals but to
social structure
- it includes gendered norms, gendered roles, and a gendered ideology, which
together make social life gendered, directing how mlaes and females should act
- its biggest influence is to creat gendered division of labour in which males and
females, in both the unpaid and the paid labour arenas, tend to act "gender
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