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Sociology 2152B - Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2152A/B
Professor
William Marshall

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SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY Introduction (Hiller) Urban  A way of life  A way of perceiving life Two views of urbanization  Demographic shift o Movement from people to cities o Increasing density/size of cities o Population increase o Cities get bigger  Metropolitan concentration (number of inhabitants)  Metropolitan regionalization (size of territory) o L. Wirth – three demographic variables  Size  Density  Heterogeneity  Socio-cultural o Pervasiveness of urban-oriented thinking, culture and organization throughout society o How you live o Primary locus of activity o Congregation of people to attend certain events o L. Wirth - Relationships lose intimacy, more complex and superficial Question: Are cities themselves are the causes of the changes we identify or just the places where they occur? Analyzing the City: Causes and Consequences  Cities have their own mechanisms of governance  Each city is unique  Differ in size, form and structure  People experience the city differently AND assess the city differently  Process of urbanization almost always involves value judgments  Cities represented a dawn of a new era in the way people related to one another o Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft  Psychosocial impacts of urban life o More competition o Overstimulation from too many people o Desire to stay aloof from others  Negative consequences o German school  Linked emergence of cities to rise of capitalism  Chicago o New kind of city that grew by attracting people from a wide diversity of backgrounds  Chicago School o Ecological approach in showing how urban behavior was related to environment or location o Concentric Zone Theory – Ernest Burgess  Particular types of people and behavior could be mapped in a series of circles around the central business district SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY  City life experienced differently by people and the way it is organized has social consequences  Impact of three demographic variables (S, D, H) o On individuals, family and work units  Sorting process in cities that separates people with different characteristics  Externalization o Creating the built environment  Internalization o Adapting to fit in to the environment of the city  Constant dialectic (tension) The New Urban Sociology  Main idea: cities represent conflict over scarce urban space in which some groups have more power and better outcomes than others o The way cities develop is a result of power relationships that have spatial outcomes o Urban inequality o Landownership and place in occupational production process  How a particular city is related to globalizing forces  Decline of industrial sector, emergence of service sector Urbanization in Canada  Extent o 8 percent of land surface available for agriculture o 19.8 percent of population is rural  Most are non-farm  Many live near urban centres o Top 20 percent most urbanized country in 1961 o 2006 – 80 percent urban o Most provinces above 40 percent urbanized o Urban populations likely to be better educated and have higher levels of income  Levels of urbanization related to regional economic disparities  Tendency to urbanize is continuous; related to improving life conditions  Defining, Measuring o Numerical/demographical measure  Minimally a community with 1000 people  Arbitrary measure o Density requirement  400 persons per sq km o CMA – census metropolitan areas  Cities with a population of more than 100,000 o 6 metropolitan areas in Canada have populations of more than one million  Political Definitions o Depends on provincial policies governing municipalities o Acquiring city status viewed as a tool for growth o No clear minimum definition of what a city was; but a coveted status  Made land more valuable  Could be used to mobilize resources for infrastructural development  Reflected optimism and expectations about future growth  Eligibility for grants from higher levels of government; preference for local control SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY o Urban spread – cities spreading out over larger areas to incorporate both older towns and villages; new communities sprout on fringes of a larger centre  Urban places often become an amalgamation of municipalities to form an urban region  Better government and provision of services Chapter 1 – Canadian Urbanization in Historical and Global Perspective (Hiller) Introduction  Canadian urbanization linked to urban power and urban factors elsewhere in the world  Colonialism, restructuring within global economy – influences of urbanization History of the City  Nomadic form of existence in the past; settlements only temporary  Discovery of settlements that housed 600 people and more o Beginnings of urbanization  Oldest city – Jericho  Human settlements occurred both as a response to the need for protection and as a reflection of power  Development of agriculture; development of government and systems of law  Eventual release from agricultural pursuits o Facilitated development of writing, literature and science  Characteristics o Centres of a civilization in which there was some sort of dominant authority  Leadership to organize people and build structures for compact living  Dynamic culture that included writing and art, various forms of architecture and early forms of science o None of these early settlements grew continuously  All collapsed and eventually lost until rediscovery The Agricultural Revolution  Domestication of plants and animals in permanent settlements o The agricultural revolution  Allowed for a sedentary lifestyle o Producing more than they needed to survive – surplus  Surplus allowed some people to be released from food production o Released from subsistence concerns to focus on other pursuits – leading to city development and growth (complex division of labour)  Four consequences of surplus o Complex division of labour  Specialization in various non-agricultural pursuits o Supported a more hierarchical society  Leaders extract a portion of the surplus in the form of a tax; used to control those not engaged in agriculture o Required an administrative structure to manage the surplus and the social controls that rewarded those who conformed to the wishes of the leaders and punished those who did not o Accentuated social inequalities via redistribution  All cities include people in a more privileged position and others who have fewer resources  Production of an agricultural surplus had important social consequences that structured organization of urban life  Cities were known for their central high point – acropolis  Agora/marketplace SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY The Rise and Fall of Cities  City needed a vast hinterland to supply needs o Therefore city was often centre of trade and commerce  Desire of leaders to expand territorial influence o Settlements became objects of attacks  Collapse of empire has devastating effects on city created as its centre o Dark Ages  But, eventual growth and rebirth Capitalism, Industrialism, and the City  Emergence of capitalism o Gave birth to market economy  Labour no longer exchanged for non-monetary subsistence; could be exchanged for monetary reward  Social stratification – related to income and achievement  Industrial Revolution o Steam engine o Introduced complex class system  Powerful entrepreneurial class  Poorly paid class of labourers  Middle class of merchants and administrators o Gave rise to slums and middle-class suburbs  Image of industrial city as polluted, poor working conditions, and crowded living conditions  Factory became an important symbol – represented space-intensive and labour- intensive activity  Also introduced concept of unemployment o Labour could be released in response to changing market conditions  England – heart of Industrial Revolution; rapid rate of urbanization Colonialism and the Rise of New Cities  Rise of nation-state in Europe  Colonialism – seeking to control new lands to extend their influence and also to satisfy the demands of their urban marketplaces  Cities were developed to serve as conduits for extraction and domination  Characteristics of colonial cities o Administrative centres  Structured by reps from empire government, financial institutions and merchants o Intermediary  Between empire and colonial hinterland and its treasures o Social polarity  Between expatriates and the unskilled or semi-skilled indigenous peoples  Colonial cities reflected interests of colonizers in architectural design, layout and law  City-forming process was greatly spurred by capital accumulation goals of European empires  Primate Cities o Surpass size of any other urban area in a country o Located on or near the coast usually o Serves as major conduit for foreign influence into the country o Extraordinary power and control over its national territory o E.g. Jakarta, Rio SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY Urban Restructuring and the World Economy  Global urbanization – world economy  Characteristics o Distinguishes between core countries and peripheral countries  Core – greatest pools of capital, technological innovation, and management skills; hence control  Peripheral – poorer and primary assets are cheap labour and resources  Core dominates and exploits periphery for its own interests o Cities serve as both primary destination and the conduit of international activitiy  Industrial Revolution – brought horizontal integration; i.e. localized control of production process  Then came vertical disintegration; segmentalized production process o Then deindustrialization  Cities in core countries have become increasingly dominated by service industries o Urban restructuring o Post-industrial city  Sense of interdependence between cities with highly paid labour and cities with poorly paid labour  Core cities have lost their manufacturing industries to cities in peripheral regions Global Differences in Urbanization  First wave of urbanization – age of industrialization o Considerable employment for urban dwellers  Second wave – rapid urbanization in developing parts of the worldw  2008 – more than half of the world population considered urban o Three quarters of the more developed regions urbanized o Only over 40 percent of less developed regions are urbanized  Cities in less developed regions swelling in population numbers o Developed regions‟ employment not adequate o Leading to slum populations in these places  Migration to cities is an idea that is oversubscribed o Overurbanization o Inability to find standard employment  Leads to subsistence urbanization  Struggle for survival – main objevtive of daily living o Informal economy – barter trade  Dual economy – lifestyle and values of those in poverty contrast sharply with educated and financially stable urban residents The New Urban Order  Cities are not so much places as they are a process by which centres are connected in a globalized network  View cities as connected, not only with their hinterlands but also with other cities  World city/Global city – a city that has a heightened position as a command and control centre in the global economy  Key word: connectivity  World cities should be understood as: o Leading urban centres that are enmeshed in a context of relationships with other cities elsewhere in the world  Characteristics of world cities SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY o Significant component of highly paid and high skilled professional workers  Pushes out the middle class who cannot afford to live in the city o Increases demand for low-waged labour to provide services required by professionals o Ethnically diverse, but polarized between high paying positions and low paying jobs o Growth shifts to towns and cities at some distance from the core  Contributes to greater regionalization of the urban population o Los Angeles School  Understands metropolitan communities as consisting of a variety of urban nodes that are interconnected but are decentralized and decentred o Growth demands new suburban sites outside the core  Limitless parcelized sprawl – parcels linked together by advances in telecommunication and transport o Central city itself becomes more polarized between wealthy and poor Conclusion  All cities require a hinterland that provides labour and resources for its needs  Process of urbanization historically tied to presence of empires  Industrialization of agriculture has played a major role in reducing rural populations and concurrently contributing to growing cities  Global restructuring that has occurred means that Canadian cities are no longer based on manufacturing economies but on service economies  Centralization of command and control functions o Leads to uneven metropolitan growth Chapter 2 – The Dynamics of Canadian Urbanization (Hiller) Introduction  Globalisation means that cities are increasingly related in a world system  Emerging patterns of urbanization are a result of o A natural process o As well as the result of deliberate decisions and human action o i.e. the political economy perspective  Canadian urbanization related to settlement of this country by Europeans  Permanent European settlements in Canada initially organized around two functions o Collection and distribution points for the staple resources o Military outposts to establish control Colonialism and Staples  Towns, villages and eventually cities were symbols of colonial expansion into new frontiers (in Canada‟s urban history)  Urban places – represented the attempt to push back the frontiers of the Canadian territory  Canadian development largely triggered by demand for staples and staple production o Fish o Fur o Timber o Mineral resources  Wheat, pulp and paper, oil and gas  Staples – resource based products that are either important for living or necessary for industry o Reason for occurrences of settlements and urbanization SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY  Settlements were sometimes formed to harvest the staple o These kinds remained small or experienced considerable volatility from boom to bust  Need to administer, finance, supply and export the commodities produced larger urban complexes o Dominant cities that exploit the hinterland o Known as metropolis  A place where manufacturing occurs and where services are provided  Where capital is raised  Where decisions are made that affect the hinterland  Hinterland o Frontier places that provide staple products to sustain the metropolis o Critical to the whole national economy  Metropolis and hinterland relationship is symbiotic o Tilted in the direction of the power of the metropolis o Metropolis absorbs population and resources from hinterland  Regional metropoles may be dominated by national or international metropoles  Two most earliest staples o Fish and fur o Then lumber o St John‟s, NL – distinction of being the first settlement in Canada  Halifax was on the edge of the continent o Enabled it to become a transit point for collection and distribution of goods and people between North America and Europe  Quebec City played an important role as a military post o Became symbolic for control of the continent o Famous battle between the British and French on the Plains of Abraham o Well known for its wall encampment  Montreal grew to become more prominent than Quebec City o Surrounded by fertile agricultural land that provided an immediate hinterland o Had the most inland port for ocean transport between Canada and Europe  Became most important commercial and financial centre in the country as expansion into the interior took place Commercial Cities and Agricultural Hinterlands  Southern Quebec and southern Ontario in latter part of eighteenth century o Set the stage for a more permanent population than the nomadic fur trade it could support o Fostered development of towns that served as community and retail centres for the agricultural population o Led to development of regional centres of commerce and administration  Allowed towns to become larger cities  Increase in size of cities brought about by the need to furnish goods and supplies to agricultural community o Through manufacturing and capital  Toronto and Montreal were the economic engines supplying the agricultural hinterland and served as dominant connection with foreign interests and foreign markets  After military role diminished SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY o Settlements diminished in significance o Developed new roles o Surpassed by new centres of significance  Opening of Erie Canal (1825) o Provided a new water outlet from the Great Lakes to New York  Cities developing their own internal hinterlands of agriculturalists and were trading with American cities Railways and the Industrial City  Alternative to water transportation  Railways o Provided all-seasons link between cities and settlements that did not end with freeze-up o Supported more robust commercial ties o Made it possible for new settlements not serviceable by water transport to emerge in the interior o Seemed to support a more diversified economy and solidified the growth of a capitalist class of entrepreneurs and promoters  Presence of capital and a growing business class in cities like Montreal and Toronto led to investment decisions, even political decisions o Seemed to make these two cities the hubs of local, regional and national life  Bank Act of 1871 o Established a centralized national branch banking system instead of a string of local banks  Centralized financial power o  National Policy of 1879 – Tariffs around the new nation o Taxed imports and gave priority to Canadian produced products  Indigenous manufacturing replaced foreign imports  Investments of capitalist class would be safer  Jobs in Canadian cities would be created o Concentration/centralization  Had differential urban effects  Buying out of budding industries in the Atlantic region that could not compete with central Canadian capital  Region‟s cities became a hinterland to central Canadian cities  Strengthened some cities, weakened others o Policy developed the Canadian West  Built a national railway linking central Canada to the West (CPR)  Envisioned to take settlers to the western interior  Serve as conduit for finished goods needed by settlers  Eastwards, carry agricultural products the farmers produced  Ensured West served as a captive market for central Canadian urban industries  Urban complex of industries, finance, and administration in central Canada that made populations elsewhere their hinterland  This pattern contributed to the urban dominance of Montreal and Toronto and their metropolitan regions Urbanization in the West  Canadian Shield – between central Canada and western Canada o Stretches across central, northern and northwestern Ontario o West of the Shield is the Western Interior (or the Prairies) SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY  Vancouver‟s coastal location along with Victoria‟s location on Vancouver Island meant that settlement would occur there before settlement in the Western Interior  Growth of the two cities did not occur as rapidly as those on the east coast  With arrival of CPR in 1887, Vancouver developed as an urban city o Strategic seaport facilitated international trade rather than just internal trade o Panama Canal opened I 1914 – west coast was more easily linked to European markets o A mainland rail terminus; linked Vancouver more closely with Canada  Opening up of western plains through the National Policy – Winnipeg emerged as third largest city in Canada o Fur-trading post at junction of Red and Assiniboine rivers in Manitoba at eastern end of plains o Growth attributed to obtaining a rail connection to the east in 1885 that established Winnipeg as the launching pad for western settlement o 2 more railways came to Winnipeg o Grain shipped east to what is now Thunder Bay o Finished goods were shipped from central Canada to Winnipeg warehouses for storage and distribution throughout the West through large wholesalers located there o Urban optimism in Winnipeg – Chicago of the North  NWMP – North West Mounted Police o Regina; capital of North-west Territories and headquarters of the NWMP o NWMP posts were scattered throughout the region but could easily be relocated as population nodes developed  Railways were the driving force in establishement of new communities o Prairie community system o University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon – solidified city‟s role as a major centre in the northern part of the province o Decision of CPR to make Calgary a major rail centre strengthened its commercial role in agriculture and ranching  Civic boosters promoting economic and population growth made difference between success or failure of one new community compared to another o Some urban centres prospered more than others  Two key points o All early settlements and urban centres established initially as result of interests of trade and empire  Commercial/exchange centres for the extraction of these staples  Hence, all of the early cities and the largest cities of Canada were located along bodies of water  Imperial interests of control as well influenced forays into the New World  Representatives of the home country could administer the surrounding territory o Role of railway made it possible for new towns and cities to emerge in the interior  Cities in interior not only hinterlands of foreign markets  They were centres developing their own interior hinterlands  Most successful of them developed links to American urban centres Increasing the Scale of Urbanization: The Twentieth Century  2006 – Toronto had more than 5.1 mil residents; Montreal had more than 3.6 mil SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY  Three factors: technology, external and internal  Technology o Shift from staples and water transportation to industry and rail o Streetcar o Possible for residents to live further from core o Industrial capitalism – more employment opportunities in cities with large production facilities  Waged working class became a more prominent feature of urban life o Electricity replaced steam power  Factory a dominant feature of the city landscape o Emergence of automobile and its mass production – created new options for urban spatial growth  Supported need for high-speed urban freeways o Structural steel  High-rise towers  Suburbanization of residence – ultimately leading to suburbanization of industry; led to growth of urban regions o Agricultural technologies  Bigger farms  Displaced agricultural workers o Air travel  Increased interurban exchange across greater distances  Internal hinterlands could be more easily serviced from big cities  External factors o Two world wars accelerated industrial growth o Demand for manufactured goods increased o Growth supported a more urban population o Influx of postwar migration from war-torn Europe to Canada o American direct investment through creation of Canadian subsidiaries in central Canada  As in automobile industry o Plants and production facilities from large MNCs set up in southern Ontario and Quebec  Solidified region‟s urban growth and dominance o Inward investment from Hong Kong played a significant role in urban development of Vancouver o Migration from Third World countries  Internal factors o Rural depopulation  Agricultural farming changing to agribusinesses  Number of farms shrinking, size of farms increasing o Continual movement of people from rural areas, small towns, smaller cities to larger cities  Interurban migration  Broader range of employment opportunities o Postwar baby boom  Demand for new housing o Population of country became more concentrated  Political power and economic power localized in one urban region  Main street of Canada; Windsor-Quebec City urban axis  More than half of the population of Canada resides in this corridor  Core region or economic engine for internal trade SOCIOLOGY 2152B – LIFEIN THE CONTEMPORARY CITY  Focus of international trade; referred to a North American region state o Urban dominance creating a sense of peripheralization in the rest of the country – hard to change o Golden Horseshoe  Conurbanization; continuous urban sprawl, few marks of differentiation from one city to another Changing Features of the Canadian Urban System  Changing Urban Hierarchy o Many cities who used to be the biggest move down the list or even off the list o Some cities who used to be at the bottom or not on the list are moving up o Total number of CMAs in Canada is 33  15 in Ontario, including 4 of the 6 new CMAs  Toronto More Dominant than Montreal o Montreal originally dominant because it was located strategically for water transportation o Opening of St Lawrence Seaway – shift of economic strength to the Great Lakes and American cities o Rail links becoming more significant than water links, made Toronto‟s position more strategic o Ontario‟s urban populat
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