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Western University
Sociology 2152A/B
William Marshall

Sociology 2152B H Intro, Chapter 1, 2, 3 • The city has increasingly become a container = city limits = bounded entity • City limits = boundaries establishes the point where a city begins and ends • Urban is no longer be so sharply differentiated from the rural, and cities may now run into one another. This suggests that to be urban might not best as living in a box labelled “Toronto”, rather it is a way of life or a way of perceiving life • Dramatic changes in transportation (car, train, plane) and communication (tv, phone, newspaper) mean that most people could be considered urban regardless of where they live • 2 views of Urbanization o One definition is more demographic in that it refers to the movement of people to cities, or the increasing size or density of cities  a population having become more urban = more people moving to cities  Metropolitan concentration = increase of number of inhabitants  Metropolitan regionalization = increase of size in terms of territory  Size, density, and heterogeneity (diverse) is the most important explanations for what makes people urban o The 2 view of urbanization is more socio-cultural and emphasizes the pervasiveness of urban oriented thinking, culture, and organization throughout society  In this view, it is not where you live that is important but how you live  If your life is defined more and more by ideas and organizations of urban origin, then you have been urbanized  Even rural dwellers have become increasingly urbanized  Cities seem to serve as the primary locus of activity and new ideas that permeate all of the society  Urbanization was viewed not just as an outcome but as a catalyst producing consequences (Urbanization = process, a quality or lifestyle)  Whether cities themselves are the causes of the changes we identify or whether cities are just the places where they occur? • Analyzing the City: Causes and Consequences o Each city is unique o We always assume that the size of the city makes a difference and that bigger cities makes a city more urban o Cities differ in size, form, structure, and even locations may make them feel very different o Cities are not just entities or objects, but they are something that is experienced o People experience cities differently, but also assess the city differently too o The process of urbanization always involve value judgement esp. in the industrial era, cities were viewed as impersonal, chaotic, and dirty. In contrast, contemporary urbanites often express feelings where things are happening and feel superior to rural or small town dwellers o The city = it represented the dawn of a new era in the way people related to one another = from community (close and personal) to society (segmentally and superficially and often competed with one another) = Fredinand Tonnies o Psychosocial impacts of urban life = creating more competition, overstimulation from too many people, and the desire to stay aloof from others (George Simmel) o The negative consequences of urbanization were quickly discovered o Sociologists = German school of urban sociology because they linked the emergence of cities with the new forces of capitalism and industrialism and sought to understand how this changed the way people related to one another = viewed cities as more historical and macro in nature by assessing changes over time o Chicago is a good example of the way in which judgements about cities helped to foster an analysis of how cities were changing human life = urban life in Chicago was perceived as a lot of people and communities with immigration from abroad, migration to cities from rural areas, and the mixture of poverty and wealth. o The Chicago School = Robert Park = viewed the city as a laboratory for fieldwork = took more of an ecological approach = a micro approach examined the different segmented spatial locations of the city, from wealthy areas to slums to places where gangs or hobos hung out  Concentric zone theory (Ernest Burgess) = suggested that particular types of people and behavior could be mapped in a series of circles around the central business district (CBD)  Urban sociology was understood to be useful in that it provided a knowledge base that would help in dealing with the problems of urban complexity o Both the German School and Chicago School laid important groundwork for urban sociology by pointing out that city life is experienced differently by people and that the way it is organized has social consequences o If cities are becoming larger, denser, more heterogeneous, and more complex, then it is important to understand the impact of these trends on individuals, families and work units. o It is also important to understand that a sorting process occurs in cities that separates people with different characteristics and that instead of being chaotic, all cities possess order and structure, even if this order is not visible to the visitor o The public often thinks of the city in terms of its built environment (buildings, roads, landscaping, signature structures..etc.)  Externalization = the city is what we make of it = we built the city  Internalization = the city shapes us and we are forced to adapt and fit in  The relationship between these 2 processes of internalization and externalization is one of constant tension = dialectic = heart of urban sociology because we are trying to understand how urban life is shaped by processes of human action and how human action is constrained by urban processes themselves • The New Urban Sociology o Central to the new urban sociology is the idea that cities represent conflict over scarce urban space in which some groups have more power and better outcomes than others o The way that cities develop = is the result of power relationships that have spatial outcomes o The role cities play and the income of their residents are also related to global forces of power and technology o Cities can be examined in terms of not only how power is expressed within their boarders but how a particular city is related to globalizing forces = all of these forces shape how people live, what they do for a living, and how they relate to one another • Urbanization in Canada o The Extent of Urbanization  The Canadian population is much more urbanized that is often thought. In actual fact, Canadian society is very highly urbanized  Throughout history, Canada became more urban as time went on. By 2006, Canada was 80% urbanized  Atlantic Canada has much lower levels of urbanization than elsewhere in Canada  Overall, urban populations are more likely to be better educated and have higher levels of income = differing levels of urbanization may be related to regional economic disparities. But it also suggests that the tendency to urbanize is continuous, because it is related to improved life conditions o Defining and Measuring “Urban”  The minimum definition of “urban” in Canada is a community with at least 1,000 people. U.S’s definition is 2,500.  Canada in 1981 added a density requirement of at least 400 persons per square km  Almost half of Canada’s population live in cities of more than half a million, and almost 3 in 5 Canadians live in cities of more than 100,000  Cities with a population of more than 100,000 have been categorized and labelled by Stats Canada as census metropolitan areas (CMA) = CMA must have a urban core of at least 50,000 people, CMA is an area and not just a city  Between 2001 and 2006, 90% of Canada’s total population growth took place in CMAs = it is clear that large cities are more and more defining Canadian life  Atlantic Canada has no cities with a population more than half a million, and the % of people living in small towns and rural areas is much higher than elsewhere in Canada  6 metropolitan areas in Canada have populations of more than 1 million (millionaires club) Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton  Half of Canada’s population resides in these cities  Toronto is by far the most populous CMA (more than 5 million) and serves as a core of an urban region called the greater Golden Horseshoe (consists of 2/3’s of Ontario’s population, and ¼ of all Canadians)  consists of 100 municipalities  The Montreal CMA consists of about 100 municipalities and about 3.6 million people, around half the population of Quebec  Vancouver CMA also consists of half of the provincial population but only has around 40 municipalities • Political Definitions of the City o The political definition of the requirements for a place to be called a city usually depends on provincial policies governing municipalities o Settlements at least in Western Canada usually took on the name “city” because of the attainment of city status is viewed as a tool for growth o City status was viewed as a means of attracting more residents and investments o There is no real political definition of a “city”, it was more of a reflected optimism and expectations about future growth than existing reality (land become more valuable) o The desire to become a “city” is usually related for eligibility for grants from higher levels of government and a preference for more local control o Cities have spread out over larger areas that incorporate both older towns and villages = urban spread = urban places often become an amalgamation of municipalities though one municipality may dominate to form an urban region o Municipalities are governed by provincial laws, because municipalities are the lowest tier of government and lack both the financial resources for their needs and the power to control their own destinies, it is not surprising that the provincial governments have viewed urban regional amalgamation as a way for cities to better govern and provide services (Unicity concept = where multiple municipalities are combined together to form a megacity) o The expansion of urban regions seems to respond to the need for more co- ordinated direction in the provision of services and infrastructural planning o Continued urban spread has meant that independent municipalities often co-exist with regional municipalities which makes the issue of boundaries between urban jurisdictions much more complex • Canadian Urbanization in Historical and Global Perspective o Canadian urbanization has been intimately linked to urban power and urban factors elsewhere in the world o The City in History  For most of human history, people were hunters and gatherers  Travelling was necessary because people had to move to new sources of food and water  Settlements were only temporary, since survival required mobility often in the face of competition from other human groups  Settlements once housed around 600 people or more  There might had been a series of settlements in a given area (beginning of urbanization)  Cities have existed for about 10,000 years with the earliest city (Jericho) dating back to around 9000-8000 BC.  Cities existed not only in the Middle East but also in India, China, Mesoamerica, and elsewhere  It appears that urbanization did not have one place of origin from which it spread but that human settlements occurred both as a response to the need for protection and as a reflection of power  As time went on, people started to grow their own food, which eliminated the need to move to find new food and water = start of urbanization  As settlements grew, they developed forms of government and systems of law  The release of people from agricultural pursuits and their settlement in cities facilitated the development of writing, literature, and science  The need for cooperation is reflected in various types of engineering to support density and compactness (esp. for defense)  Most of the ancient cities were located on river plains where the rich soil would yield good crops  Characteristics of these early cities: 1) they were the centers of a civilization in where they was some sort of dominant authority (leadership dominant leader usually also represented a dynamic culture that included writing and art, various forms of architecture and even early forms of science), 2) none of these early settlements grew continuously, in fact, all of them collapsed and were essentially lost until they were rediscovered by archaeologists  one reason for early cities to collapse is that the authority structures eroded, leaving people in disarray and thereby contributing to the abandonment of the city  Urban centers were not linked and were scattered all over the world o The Agricultural Revolution: Precursor to the Modern City  The key for the development of permanent settlements was the domestication of plants and animals (first stage in the agricultural revolution)  No longer did humans have to move with their food supply, they were now able to settle down and plant seeds to grow their own food and maintain their own livestock (sense of territorial permanence)  When agriculturalists produced more food than they needed to survive, it meant that some people could be released from food production = food surplus = free people to build, invent, and create  These people are released from subsistence concerns and can create works of art, build bridges and public buildings and focus on health care or leisure pursuits as careers  This agricultural revolution made it possible for cities to grow and develop with a much more complex division of labor  Sociologically, the ability to produce a surplus had 4 consequences: 1) the development of a more complex division of labor, people were freed and could specialize in various non-agricultural pursuits, from religion to trade to art, 2) the production of a surplus supported a more hierarchical society in which the leaders could extract a portion of the surplus in the form of tax, 3) the existence of a ruler-controlled surplus required an administrative structure to manage the surplus and the social controls that rewarded those who conformed to the wishes of the leaders and punished those who did not, 4) social inequalities  some people were allowed to live a more leisurely life, while others had a slave type existence  The production of an agricultural surplus had important social consequences that structured the organization of urban life  It is often thought that the fullest development of the ancient cities can be seen in the cities of Greek and roman culture from about 1000 BC to AD 300  Architecturally, these cities were known for their central high points = acropolis around which the city was built. The dominant role of the marketplace was also a distinctive feature  The most significant city at that time was Rome (more than 1 million residents), had complex road systems, a water system, public spaces like the public baths, and structures like the Forum and Colosseum o The Rise and Fall of Cities  Most notable thing about the cities at that time = the cities were always the centre of some kind of empire  The city needed a vast hinterland to supply its needs and therefore was often the center of trade and commerce  Cities also reflected the desire of their leaders to expand their territorial influence = attack on settlements = first form of warfare  One of the reasons why Rome become so influential and powerful was that it was the centre of a vast empire, it stretched as far away as Britain (London)  In almost all cases, the collapse of an empire had a devastating effect on the city that had been as its center – so great that it literally disintegrated and was abandoned  This was the case of the Roman Empire  Caused the Dark ages, lasting th until about the 11 century th  The later medieval period and the Renaissance from the 12 century through the 16 century are generally known as a time of growth and rebirth for most of Europe  population growth too much, didn’t have enough structure to support it = 1/3 of the population of Europe died as a th result of plagues such as the Black death of the 14 century o Capitalism, Industrialism, and the City  Trade had always been an important urban function, and the location of the city was often related to its position on trade routes  A significant development in the feudal and post-feudal period was the emergence of craft production, money exchange and trade which produced a new social class of urban entrepreneurs who over time became more powerful  This development is often referred to as the emergence of capitalism, which transformed social life and established what is called a market economy (trading monetary reward instead of only trading for non- monetary substance)  This set the stage for the selling of labor in factory production but also opened the door to social stratification no longer dependent solely on status and property but also related to income and achievement  The industrial revolution, often dated from the invention of the steam engine in England in 1775 symbolizes the dawn of a new ear that had huge significance for cities  Separated place of work from place of residence  Introduced a more complex class system = an increasingly powerful entrepreneurial class on one hand and a poorly paid class with a new middle class of merchants and administrators  Factory owners at that time had to make profit = exploited labor (including children) for maximum gain  no infrastructure to support these poor workers = result was the image and reality of the industrial city as polluted, with poor working conditions and crowded working conditions (the Dickensian city)  these problems resulted from early industrial capitalism  The city is still trying to fight off this industrial dirty image  From an urban perspective, the factory became an important symbol of a new kind of city because it represented a space intensive and labor intensive activity – large numbers of people could find gainful employment in a relatively small space (the factory), which made larger, denser cities possible. It also introduced unemployment, where labor could be released depending on market conditions.  In Europe, people flocked to the cities because of the new opportunities that industrial capitalism provided. England was at the heart of the industrial revolution (London had the most residents of any cities in England in 1801)  In the 2 centuries from 1600-1800, the population of English Cities increased by 600%, the rural non-agricultural population grew by 249%, and the rural agricultural population grew only by 9% o Colonialism and the Rise of the New Cities  Colonialism = a process that entitled European nation-states seeking to control the new lands not only as a means of extending their influence but also to satisfy the demands of their urban marketplace  As wealth and power grew in European Cities, a consumer base existed for materials and products brought from far-flung countries  A port city was usually established in the new territory that would serve as the beachhead for colonial influence and trade  Throughout the Americas, Africa’s, and Asia, cities were developed to serve as conduits for extraction and domination (New York, Boston, Hong Kong, Singapore)  Characteristics of these colonial cities?  1) They were administrative centres structured by representatives from the empire government, its financial institutions, and its merchants  2) They serve as an intermediary between the empire and the colonial hinterland and its treasures  3) A social polarity existed between the expatriates and the unskilled or semi-skilled indigenous peoples = where indigenous people were greater in numbers, they were separated between the foreign elite and poorer indigenous people. Where indigenous people were less in numbers, the cities grew by driving these people out  ***The city forming process throughout the world was greatly spurred by the capital accumulation goals of European empires***  Colonial cities often became primate cities = cities that greatly surpass the size of any other urban area in a country. They are usually located on or near the coast and serve as the major conduit for foreign influence into the country  As a result of this, the values and way of life of people in a primate city are considerably different from those of the people who live in the surrounding countryside  Primate cities has extraordinary power and control over its national territory, started as colonial cities at first then grew in size and power o Urban Restructuring and The World Economy  World economy = the linking of merchant capitalism with industrial capitalism energized and supported global urbanization  Manufacture and trade of goods = would now be a global economy and a global division of labor  Characteristics of the World Economy  1) Differences between core countries (which have the greatest pools of capital, technological innovation, and management skills and therefore = control) and peripheral countries (poorer and whose primary assets are cheap labour and resources)  Core and peripheral countries need each other but core has control over peripheral  Cities in the world economy serve as both the primary destination and the conduit of this international activity (connects to other major cities of the world)  Canada  Semi-peripheral status  providing labour and resources to other countries (NOT CHEAP)  Globalization is the key to world economy and it depends on manufacturing  Horizontal integration = when all manufacturing process are closely linked together and locally controlled = manufacturing should be as close to the big markets as possible so companies brought all the raw materials to the job sites located in the same region that controlled all aspects of the production process  Vertical disintegration = the main company no longer engaged in all aspects of the production process but hand off the production process to suppliers that compete for the contract = need to find cheap labour  Deindustrialization = when much manufacturing are transferred away from core countries and their cities = these cities are considered post- industrial cities with much of the industrial process handed off to cities where cheap labour exists  Cities in core countries have become increasingly dominated by service industries  Urban restructuring = transfer of roles from horizontal to vertical to deindustrialization in a global marketplace  Post-industrial city = has created a sense of interdependence between cities with highly paid labour and cities with poorly paid labour  Core cities are normally no longer engaged in production but focused on product design and development, research, and marketing  The standard of living of people with good jobs and high rates of pay in core countries is supported by cheap labour elsewhere  Maquiladoras = tax free havens in Mexico where companies in North America and Europe can take advantage of the cheap labour there  Core cities have lost their manufacturing industries to cities in peripheral regions = reinforce the idea we now live in a global economy o Global Differences in Urbanization  There was a significant lag between urbanization in the developed world and in the developing world  The first wave of urbanization took place in Europe and North America in the period between 1750-1950  The second wave of urbanization took place after 1950 where developing countries urban dwellers surpassed developed countries  Year 2008 = more than half of the world’s population is considered urban  3/4 of the developed countries are urbanized, but a little over 40% of less developing countries are  There are more urban dwellers in Asia that in any parts of the world and more people are living in cities in Asia than in North/South America, Oceania, and Europe combined  By 2030, Asia will have more urban dwellers than the rest of the world  Africa will be the 2 in 2030  It is cities in the less developed regions that are swelling in population numbers  The significant differences with the developed region is that employment was no adequate for this rush of urban growth = leading to considerable poverty in these cities  Over urbanization =migration to cities at such a rate that new residents cannot be adequately integrated = the inability to find standard employment (decent hours and pay) results in subsistence urbanization in which the struggle for survival is the main objective of daily living  Innovative ways of earning money = informal economy = thrives in 3 rd world countries but does no produce enough money for cities to provide the structure of a decent standard of living to urban residents  Not all people in cities in less developed countries are poor – esp. primate cities = dual economy = where the lifestyle and values of those in poverty contrast sharply with those of urban residents who are educated and who have financial resources (iron gates and walls) Example: China o The New Urban Order  Some cities are more important than others because they are critical to the forces of market capitalism that are redefining the world beyond the borders of the nation-state  Cities are a process by which centers are connected in a globalized network = cities should not be viewed as bounded territories but as connected not only to itself but also other cities  The fact that the tallest buildings in the world are in these primate cities says something that they are more important than they look  World City (global city) = is a city that has a heightened position as a command and control center in the global economy (it plays a vital role culturally and politically) – London, New York, Paris, Tokyo  Most important thing = these cities are all connected  World cities contain institutions like banks, accounting companies, advertising companies, media conglomerates, and law firms, as well as other multinational corporations that pursue activities throughout the world  Other cities such as L.A., Hong Kong has their own niches as world class cities  World cities should be understood as leading urban centers that are enmeshed in a context of relationships with other cities elsewhere in the world  The ranks of leading world cities are no longer restricted to the cities of North Atlantic community of North America and Europe  Global cities or world cities do have some unique characteristics  1) Because they often serve as the HQ for major corporations, they have a significant component of highly paid and highly skilled professional workers (mostly international people) that increases the demand for expensive housing and services = drives out middle class  2) It also increases the demand for low wage labour to do the work for the highly professionalized people  World class thus tend to be ethnically diverse but polarized between those in high paying positions and those with low paying jobs  As the centers of these cities become more expensive, growth shifts to the towns and cities at some distance from the core, which contributes to greater regionalization of the urban population  Los Angeles School = understands metropolitan communities as consisting of a variety of urban nodes that are interconnected but are decentralized and decentred = the central city itself becomes more polarized between the wealthy and the poor • The Dynamics of Canadian Urbanization o Globalization means that cities are increasingly related in a world system o The different emerging patterns of urbanization are not just the result of some kind of natural process but are the result of deliberate decisions and human action o Political Economy Perspective = it points out that the decisions made by people in positions in power, esp. in business and politics have a major impact on how urbanization proceeds o Government politics, political and economic power and investment decisions have played a huge role in determining the outcomes of the process of urbanization in Canada o Canadian urbanization was influenced by the settlement of this country by Europeans from east-to-west o First urbanization in Canada is on the east coast o Permanent European settlements in Canada were initially organized around 2 functions: as collection and distribution points for staple resources and as military outposts to establish control o Colonialism and Staples  European governments and urban business interests, as well as the European themselves played a major role in shaping the nature of this urbanization  Canadian development was largely triggered by the demand for staples and staple production (fish, fur, timber, mineral resources..etc.)  Staples are resource-based products that are either important for living or necessary for industry. Whenever these staples are found, a process of settlement and urbanization occurred  What produced larger urban complexes was the need to administer, finance, supply and export these commodities thus emerged a dew dominant cities to service and exploit the hinterland  Dominant city = metropolis because it is a place where manufacturing occurs and where services are provided, where capital is raised and where decisions are made that affect the hinterland  Hinterland = refers to those frontier places that provide staple products to sustain the metropolis and that are critical to the whole national economy  Metropolis and Hinterland need each other but metropolis has the control over hinterland = absorbs the population as well as the resources from the hinterland  There is also a hierarchical relationship between metropolitan communities in that regional metropolis may be dominated by national or international metropolis  The 2 earliest and most important staple: Fish and Fur  St. Johns has the distinction of being the first settlement in Canada (fish)  St. Johns also made a good military outpost because it was located as the North American land closest to Europe  Ha
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