Sociology 2172A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter all reading notes: Media Planning, Influencer Marketing, Institute For Operations Research And The Management Sciences

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Week 2 Sep 11th 2018
Einstein Chapter 1- From Advertising to Marketing
What is advertising?
Advertising is paid communication used to persuade someone to buy a product or service of a
specific sponsor
Can come in different forms (print, digital, television, radio etc) static or video based
Each type is suited for a specific purpose; television- useful in evoking emotions due to the use
of sound and sight
Print- useful if the product needs considerable explanation
Target audience- the defined group of people that advertising messages are specifically targeted
The job of advertising is to get the right message across to the right people at the right time and
Advertising heavily influences peoples’ decisions to purchase certain goods/ services
All companies and corporations use advertising; due to digital media, the price of advertising has
been driven down so there is no reason for companies not to advertise
Beyond the advertising of tangible goods, advertising is also used to promote social and cultural
ideas (politics, religion, education etc)
FOUR major departments collaborate to develop informative and entertaining ads that appeal to
the target audience:
Account management oversees everything to do with the brand, in daily contact with the
They know: how much of the product is sold, if sales are going up or down, competitors, any
major issues that that could affect future sales
Research or account planning responsible for gaining and understanding of the consumers
through various research methodologies
- The voice of the consumer in the advertising process
Use of focus groups, interviews, ethnographies
Creative based on the information gathered by the research department, the creative department
develops a series of advertising concepts (spearheaded by the creative director)
Media responsible for planning the best place to put the advertising message; best time of day,
day of the week, medium to be used etc
They do this by looking at the target market that was determined through research
Difference between Advertising and Marketing?
Advertising- form of communication used to persuade people to buy
Marketing- coordinated efforts to generate desire within consumers for a particular brand to
eventually create brand loyalty and a longstanding relationship.
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Four Ps of Marketing-
Product- everything to do with the physical object being sold
Price- the amount we pay for a product
Place- where and how the product is sold
Promotion- the various ways that the company stimulates desire for the product
PR vs Advertising?
Public relations: concerned with managing the reputation of a company, brand or person.
- PR aims to positively influence attitudes of consumers towards a company, brand etc
- Key is the create and maintain relationships with the media
Difference between PR and Advertising
Advertising is paid for and PR is not
- Companies pay for placement therefore advertising must be provided
- With PR, there are no guarantees; because it is not paid for there is an implied third-party
- PR garners more credibility with consumers
PR and Marketing…
- Social media has changed marketing
- With the internet and social media… anyone can comment anything about a brand/
product/ company
- Rather than mass/ niche marketing we have moved more towards one on one interactions
with consumers
- This is why some say that PR will overtake advertising as the primary promotional tool
What is Branding?
- A brand is the sum of a product’s intangible attributes: name, packaging, price, reputation
among consumers
- We resonate with brand narratives (mythologies)
- Consumers associate a product with a story when they see the logo
Eg. Red bull-
Red bull has established a narrative around its product
They also have a logo and a tagline; as well as a distinct packaging
All these things create brand associations through subliminal messages
Branding and customers…
Brands become part of our identities as customers
Personal branding- turning ourselves into brands
Advertisements now not only show you features of the product but also almost always show
how/ why that product makes the world a better place
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Goals of Advertising-
Main goals- entertainment and information
Entertaining- ads must be able to get and keep our attention
Information- ads must be relevant
Why do we buy products?
Advertise as much as possible
With an established product- reminder advertising is used to get consumers to try the product
again or to get existing customers to buy more
Branding is used to differentiate one product from another
Creating a preference for one brand over another enables firms to attract customers from
Ford Edsel Situation
The car was heavily promoted but once customers saw it first-hand, they weren’t interested
Marketing campaign disasters were then on referred to as Edsels
Advertisers cannot make consumers buy a product they don’t want.
This situation explains the value of the four Ps-
When a product does not sell, the firm needs to evaluate each element to discover where
something is wrong
On the other hand,
Companies can make something into a trend or fad and lead consumers to think that the product
is a necessity
Marketers can manipulate and push us to buy things we don’t need
Close, Angeline G and Charles Pearce “Advertising to Captive Audiences.”
Advertising acceptable almost anywhere?
Majority of marketing communications can add value to people’s lives
Advertising and marketing are starting to be more out of home because people are spending less
and less time at home
Advertisings are not hold consumers captive; they are entertaining, educating and providing a
social backdrop to consumer lifestyles
Macro effects to local and global economies provides evidence that advertising is a good thing
Economic benefits of advertising-
Smart business component- promotes capitalism, enhances the economy and provides jobs
Advertising has intended (positive) and unintended (positive and negative) effects on consumers
and society
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