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Chapter 2

# Sociology 2205A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Interval Ratio, Mortality Rate, Frequency Distribution

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**preview**shows half of the first page. to view the full**3 pages of the document.**1. Chapter 2: Basic Descriptive Statistics

2.1: Percentages and Proportions

Percentages and proportions allow for standardizing raw data and making it more

understandable and relatable

Percentages are to the base 100 f = frequency, or the number of cases in any category

n = the number of cases in all categories

Proportions are to the base 1.00

Formula 2.1: proportion (p) = f/n

Formula 2.2: percentage (%) = (f/n) x 100

When working with small cases (fewer than 20) it is usually preferable to report in

actual frquencies

Always report the number of observations along with proportions and percentages

a. Ex. 2/3 people smoke, while 25 people were tested

Percentages and proportions can be calculated for variables at the ordinal and nominal

levels of measurement

a. Ex. 43% of the sample is female (only expressing the relative size, female of the

variable, gender)

2.2: Ratios and Rates

Ratios and rates provide some additional ways of summarizing results simply and clearly

Ratios

Useful for comparing categories of a variable in terms of relative frequency

Ratios express the relative size of the categories/exactly how much one category

outnumbers the other

Formula 2.3: Ratio = f1/f2 f1 = the number of cases in the first category

f2 = the number of cases in the second category

Rates

Provide another way of summarizing the distribution of a single variable

Defined as the number of actual occurrences of some phenomenon divided by the

number of possible occurrences per some unit in time

Usually multiplied by some unit of 10 to get rid of decimal points

Ex. The crude death rate for a population is defined as the number of deaths in that

population (actual occurrences) divided by the number of people in the population (possible

occurrences) per year. This quantity is then multiplied by 1000

Crude death rate = number of deaths (actual occurrence) / Total Population (possible occurrence)

x 1000

Crude death rate =

2.3: Frequency Distributions Introduction

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