Sociology 2205A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Cumulative Frequency Analysis, Frequency Distribution

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Percentages and properties supply a frame of reference for reporting research results in the sense that they standardize the raw data: percentages to the base 100 and proportions to the base 1. 00. F = frequency, or the number of cases in any category. N = the number of cases in all categories. When working with a small number of cases (like fewer than 20), report the actual frequencies rather than the percent. Percentages can change drastically with relatively minor changes in the data. Always report the number of observations along with proportions and percentages. This permits the reader to judge the adequacy of the sample size and helps to prevent the researcher from lying with statistics. You should be extremely suspicious of reports that fail to state the number of cases that were tested. They provide some additional ways of summarizing results simple and clearly.

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