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Chapter 10

Research Methods - Chapter 10.doc

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Sociology 2206A/B
Neil Holt

Research Methods Chapter 10: Nonreactive Research & Secondary Analysis [Introduction ] Reactive: people being studied and AWARE of it Nonreactive: people being studied and NOT AWARE of it [Nonreactive Measurement] - Non intrusive, gets a NATURAL read on peoples thoughts Varieties of Nonreactive/unobtrusive Observation Erosion Measures: selective wear is used as a measure Accretion Measures: measures are deposits of something left behind - Follows logic of quantitative measurement – Conceptualized first, links to evidence. [Content Analysis] Content Analysis: technique for gathering and analyzing content of text - Content = words, meaning, pictures, symbols - Text = anything written, visual, spoken - Objective, systematic, nonreactive - Can compare content across many texts Coding: turns aspect of content that represent variables into numbers Topics appropriate for Content Analysis - cannot determine truthfulness – DOESNT INTERPRET - Good for 3 types of problems - problems with a lot of text - when a problem has to be studied at a distance – hard to access fully documents - reveal messages in text that are difficult to see with causal observation Measurement and Coding Coding System: set of instructions of rules on how to systematically observe and record content from text Units: unit of analysis; words, phase, theme, plot. Use recording units, context units, enumeration units. Structured Observation: systematic, careful observation based on written rules of how to classify and categorize observations What is measured? Frequency: counting whether something occurs or not and if so – how often Direction: direction of messages in content along some continuum – positive/negative, supporting/opposed Research Methods Chapter 10: Nonreactive Research & Secondary Analysis Intensity: strength of a message in direction Space: record the size of a text message of the amount of space/volume allocated to it – In written text measured by counting words, In video/audio measured by time allocated Coding, Validity, Reliability Manifest Coding: Coding the visible, surface content in a text. - Highly reliable - Does not take connotations of word into account Coding Frame: list of all the possible values that your codes may take Latent Coding: (semanti
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