Chapter 10- nonreactive quantitative research and secondary analysis. The people being studied are not aware that they are part of a research project. Nonreactive techniques are largely based on positivist principles but are also used by interpretive and critical researchers. Nonreactive measurement begins when a researcher notices something that indicates a variable of interest. The behaviours or actions of the subject are natural . The observant researcher infers from the evidence to behaviour or attitudes without disrupting the people being studied. Nonreactive measures are varied and researchers have been creative in inventing indirect ways to measure social behaviour. Ex. family portraits have been studied to see how gender relations within the family are reflected in seating patterns. Ex. researchers have studied the listening habits of drivers by checking what stations their radios are on when the cars are being repaired. Creating nonreactive measures follows the logic of quantitative measurement.