Aiding respondent recall: researchers should provide aids to respondent recall, such as a fixed time frame or location references. 3 principles for effective survey research: keep it clear, keep it simple, keep the respondent"s perspective in mind. Possible errors in writing surveys: prestige bias = occurs when a highly respected group or individual is linked to one of the answers. 2206: double-barrelled questions = a problem in wording. The answer to the first part of the question determines which of the 2 different questions a respondent receives next. Open vs. closed questions: open-ended question = respondents are free to offer any answer they wish. Issues of non-attitudes can be approached by distinguishing among 3 kinds of attitude questions: standard format question: Standard format question = a type of survey research question in which the answer categories fail to include no opinion or don"t know .