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Chapter 2

Chapter 2- Brief History on Policing

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Sociology 2253A/B
Jennifer Silcox

A BRIEF HISTORY OF POLICING - in European context no early law enforcement prior to 19 thcentury - emperors defended their power and those who did not comply dealt with the wrath of their armies THE TITHING SYSTEM - Alfred the Great ruled over Anglo Saxon England said they would provide security for subjects in exchange for loyalty and obedience - Alfred ordered landowners to provide protection for workers - ordered groups of ten people to watch over neighborhood called tithing’s and if they saw something they would raise awareness by raising a hue and cry or alert the group by ringing a bell for example - shire-reeve was the name of the sheriff THE FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM(1066) - William the Conqueror adopted framework of Anglo-Saxon tithing system but called it the Frank Pledge  system required citizens to pledge to uphold the law and take responsibility for the conduct of all members within the group  reduced responsibility of sheer-rives to dealing strictly with law enforcement  Judges appointed courts were formalized  A ”court tourn” developed where a group of people could hear cases  For serious crimes 12 people selected from tithing to hear and investigate cases (origin of jury system) - in some communities courts were established to handle matters more local in scope and interest without having to involve the court tourn, was headed by comes stabuli (horse constable who now is constable) constable: lowers rank of office held by a sworn police officer THE STATUE OF WINCHESTER (1285) - statue of Winchester created a code outlining police practices and introduced the concept of rural policing using the parish system to identify areas of police jurisdiction  justices of peace were introduced taking role of sheer-rives  watch and ward, watch-night ward-day jurisdiction: the authority given to a police service to carry out law enforcement responsibilities within a defined geographic area (e.g. Provincial vs. federal) - industrial revolution spiked crime rate SIR ROBERT PEEL’S VISION (1829) - after spark in crime the England government considered the French gendarme system though rejected because too closely resembled military system - in 1829 the Metro Police Act was introduced creating first major British police organization for the City of London - Sir Robert Peel long considered father of modern day policing  two slang terms for police officers, bobbies and peelers  established 9 guiding principles that would set out priorities for newly formed police  primary focus was prevention of crime and disorder peelers: in Ireland bobbies: England - some criminologists argue that t
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