Chapter 7 Definitions:
anthropometry: the science of measuring the size, weight, and proportions of the
human body in criminal cases
Locard’s exchange principle: states that whenever objects come in contact with
one another, there will be an exchange of material between them
Trace Evidence: evidence such as blood, or other bodily fluids like saliva, semen,
fingerprints hair, teeth marks, fibers, from clothing or carpets flakes of skin left
under fingernails or dirt left on clothing or shoes.
Identification officers: police officer who are given specialized forensic training
to investigate major crimes
Scene of crime officers: usually police officers, but in rare cases may be civilian
members who have taken similar training to investigate minor crimes
Reasonable doubt: the standard of belief beyond which the prosecution must
prove its case to obtain a criminal conviction, in other words, the defendants guilt
must be proven to the extent that “ no reasonable person” could have “ reasonable
doubt” about it.
Forensic Psychology: the application of psychological research, methods,
theories, and practices to a task faced by the legal system
Cognitive ability tests: tests designed to measure reasoning, perception,
memory, verbal and written language skills, mathematical ability, and problem
Personality tests: standardized tests used to measure personality characteristics
or discover personality disorders that might affect a person’s ability to perform a
Situational tests: tests that present applicants with hypothetical job-related
scenarios and ask them to identify appropriate responses from a list of alternatives.
Offender profiling: the process of using all available information about a crime,
crime scene, and a victim in order to compose a profile of the unknown perpetrator.
Investigative Psychology: field of study that takes the scientific discipline of
psychology-its principles, theories, and empirical findings-and applies it to
investigations and the legal process.
McNaughton rule: rule stipulating that a person cannot be convicted of a crime if,
at the time of the offence, he or she had a mental defect or disease of the mind that
made him or her unaware of the nature of his or her actions, or incapable of
knowing that act was wrong.
Chapter 8 Definitions:
Sentence: a judicial determination of the legal sanction to be given to a person
who has been convicted of an offense
Reintegrate: returning offenders to society as law-abiding and productive
Disparity: a legal context, the difference or inconsistency among judges with
respect to sentencing
Remand: the holding of an accused in custody while he or she waits for trail or
sentencing Aggravating circumstances: elements in the crime or in the life circumstances of
an offender that may permit a judge to sentence the offender to a longer term in
prison before being eligible to apply for parole or conditional release
WHY the offender was in a position of trust and authority
over the victim
There was premeditation and planning
Gap principle: a principle whereby a judge, when deciding on an appropriate
sentence for a repeat offender, considers how much time has passed since the
offenders’ last offence
Mitigating Circumstances: elements in the crime or in the life circumstances of
an offender that may permit a judge to sentence the offender more leniently.
Deterrence: disincentive to commit a crime; an effect of arrest and incarceration
Denunciation: a condemnation or criticism of another actions
Rehabilitation: the treatment of offenders in order to prevent future criminal
Disposition: the specific sanction imposed by a judge in sentencing a person who
has been convicted of an offense.
Chapter 9 Definitions:
Remand: the holding of an accused in custody while he or she waits for trial
Social control: informal influences (e.g. disapproving frown from a parent) and
formal influences (e.g. laws, regulations) on a person’s behavior
Assessment: the process by which professionals such as doctors, social workers,
and correctional staff gain insight into a person’s behavior and situation; usually the
first step toward developing an intervention plan.
Static risk Factors: risk factors associated with criminal history that cannot be
changed (i.e. Age at first arrest)
Dynamic Risk Factors: factors such as substance abuse and negative peers that
contribute to an individual’s criminal behavior but are possible to change.
Risk-need-responsibility (RNR MODEL): assessment and rehabilitation theory
that suggests it is possible to accurately predict the likelihood that some will
reoffend and to effectively intervene to reduce the risk
Risk principle indicates that an offender’s risk to reoffend can be
predicted and reduced if the level of service provided matches the risk level of the
Need principle refers to addressing the specific factors that are directly
related to the offender criminal behavior as having the most impact on reducing
Top three criminogenic need factors were found to be anti-social support, anti-
social personality, and anti-social cognitions.
Cognitive- behavioral strategies: strategies, based on the theory that our
thoughts, perceptions, and interpretations of the world influence our behavior, that
help us change the way we perceive or interpret a situation, which in turn changes
how we behave. Chapter 10 Definitions:
Sanction: a penalty, such as a fine, probation, or incarceration, imposed on
someone found guilty of a criminal offence
Interventions: Various strategies, such as treatment programs, job training, or
upgrading education, used to help an offender learn alternatives to criminal
Probation: a sentence that is served within the community and that often comes
with certain restrictions and conditions, such as regularly checking in with a
probation and parole officer.
Criminogenic risk Factors: factors contributing to an individuals criminal
behavior that are possible to change, such as substance abuse or negative peers, if
change occurs the risk for continued criminal behavior is reduced.
Collateral contacts: people on whom probation and parole officers rely to assist
in supervising offenders and confirming information provided by offenders
Parole: an early conditional supervised release from a custodial sentence. A
person on parole has served a portion of the sentence within an institution.
Conditional sentence: a sentence served in the community and supervised by
probation and parole officers. Officers are required to abide by a number of
conditions that, if breached, may result either in additional conditions to comply
with or in incarceration.
Community service order: an order imposed by the court requiring the offender
to complete up to 240 hours of volunteer work
Non-governmental organizations: organizations that pr