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Chapter 7-15

Chapter definitions for Admin of Criminology chapters 7-15.docx

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Sociology 2253A/B
Jennifer Silcox

Chapter 7 Definitions: anthropometry: the science of measuring the size, weight, and proportions of the human body in criminal cases Locard’s exchange principle: states that whenever objects come in contact with one another, there will be an exchange of material between them Trace Evidence: evidence such as blood, or other bodily fluids like saliva, semen, fingerprints hair, teeth marks, fibers, from clothing or carpets flakes of skin left under fingernails or dirt left on clothing or shoes. Identification officers: police officer who are given specialized forensic training to investigate major crimes Scene of crime officers: usually police officers, but in rare cases may be civilian members who have taken similar training to investigate minor crimes Reasonable doubt: the standard of belief beyond which the prosecution must prove its case to obtain a criminal conviction, in other words, the defendants guilt must be proven to the extent that “ no reasonable person” could have “ reasonable doubt” about it. Forensic Psychology: the application of psychological research, methods, theories, and practices to a task faced by the legal system Cognitive ability tests: tests designed to measure reasoning, perception, memory, verbal and written language skills, mathematical ability, and problem solving Personality tests: standardized tests used to measure personality characteristics or discover personality disorders that might affect a person’s ability to perform a specific job Situational tests: tests that present applicants with hypothetical job-related scenarios and ask them to identify appropriate responses from a list of alternatives. Offender profiling: the process of using all available information about a crime, crime scene, and a victim in order to compose a profile of the unknown perpetrator. Investigative Psychology: field of study that takes the scientific discipline of psychology-its principles, theories, and empirical findings-and applies it to investigations and the legal process. McNaughton rule: rule stipulating that a person cannot be convicted of a crime if, at the time of the offence, he or she had a mental defect or disease of the mind that made him or her unaware of the nature of his or her actions, or incapable of knowing that act was wrong. Chapter 8 Definitions: Sentence: a judicial determination of the legal sanction to be given to a person who has been convicted of an offense Reintegrate: returning offenders to society as law-abiding and productive citizens Disparity: a legal context, the difference or inconsistency among judges with respect to sentencing Remand: the holding of an accused in custody while he or she waits for trail or sentencing Aggravating circumstances: elements in the crime or in the life circumstances of an offender that may permit a judge to sentence the offender to a longer term in prison before being eligible to apply for parole or conditional release WHY the offender was in a position of trust and authority over the victim  There was premeditation and planning Gap principle: a principle whereby a judge, when deciding on an appropriate sentence for a repeat offender, considers how much time has passed since the offenders’ last offence Mitigating Circumstances: elements in the crime or in the life circumstances of an offender that may permit a judge to sentence the offender more leniently. Deterrence: disincentive to commit a crime; an effect of arrest and incarceration Denunciation: a condemnation or criticism of another actions Rehabilitation: the treatment of offenders in order to prevent future criminal activity Disposition: the specific sanction imposed by a judge in sentencing a person who has been convicted of an offense. Chapter 9 Definitions: Remand: the holding of an accused in custody while he or she waits for trial Social control: informal influences (e.g. disapproving frown from a parent) and formal influences (e.g. laws, regulations) on a person’s behavior Assessment: the process by which professionals such as doctors, social workers, and correctional staff gain insight into a person’s behavior and situation; usually the first step toward developing an intervention plan. Static risk Factors: risk factors associated with criminal history that cannot be changed (i.e. Age at first arrest) Dynamic Risk Factors: factors such as substance abuse and negative peers that contribute to an individual’s criminal behavior but are possible to change. Risk-need-responsibility (RNR MODEL): assessment and rehabilitation theory that suggests it is possible to accurately predict the likelihood that some will reoffend and to effectively intervene to reduce the risk  Risk principle indicates that an offender’s risk to reoffend can be predicted and reduced if the level of service provided matches the risk level of the person  Need principle refers to addressing the specific factors that are directly related to the offender criminal behavior as having the most impact on reducing recidivism Top three criminogenic need factors were found to be anti-social support, anti- social personality, and anti-social cognitions. Cognitive- behavioral strategies: strategies, based on the theory that our thoughts, perceptions, and interpretations of the world influence our behavior, that help us change the way we perceive or interpret a situation, which in turn changes how we behave. Chapter 10 Definitions: Sanction: a penalty, such as a fine, probation, or incarceration, imposed on someone found guilty of a criminal offence Interventions: Various strategies, such as treatment programs, job training, or upgrading education, used to help an offender learn alternatives to criminal behavior Probation: a sentence that is served within the community and that often comes with certain restrictions and conditions, such as regularly checking in with a probation and parole officer. Criminogenic risk Factors: factors contributing to an individuals criminal behavior that are possible to change, such as substance abuse or negative peers, if change occurs the risk for continued criminal behavior is reduced. Collateral contacts: people on whom probation and parole officers rely to assist in supervising offenders and confirming information provided by offenders Parole: an early conditional supervised release from a custodial sentence. A person on parole has served a portion of the sentence within an institution. Conditional sentence: a sentence served in the community and supervised by probation and parole officers. Officers are required to abide by a number of conditions that, if breached, may result either in additional conditions to comply with or in incarceration. Community service order: an order imposed by the court requiring the offender to complete up to 240 hours of volunteer work Non-governmental organizations: organizations that pr
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