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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Notes- Victimology .docx

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Western University
Sociology 2266A/B
Lisa Lyons

Criminology Chapter 7 Victimology, Victim Services and Victim Rights in Canada  Role of victim is limited to calling the police, collaboration with police investigation and acting as witness in court  Victims of crime = orphans of CJS, orphans of criminology A Snapshot of Victimization in Canada (Box 7.1)  Interpersonal crime will cause victims 2.5 bill  Fewer than 1/3 call the police to report crime  Less than 3% will see offenders convicted  Police services cost 400 mill out of local taxes  Police unlikely to inform victims of availability of services Prevalence, Impact and Needs of Victims  Two main flaws found in data on crime from police o 1) victims do not report crime to police o 2) many reported crimes are not recorded by police  To investigate large scale surveys of adults to find out who had been a victim of crime and whether the victim had reported the offence - victimization surveys o Surveys of the general public to identify who has been a victim of crime, whether they reported the crime to police, and other related aspects of victimization  Canada only does intermittently over last 40 yrs  Stats Canada only every 5 yrs (compared to annual basis of many countries) o Main source of Data from General Social Survey (GSS)  Adult victims of violent crimes are young, male, aboriginal  Rate hasn’t changed  A quarter of victims = theft/assault  Repeat victimization of the same victim has been frequently observed in victimization surveys o In Canada, Aboriginals are much more at risk for repeat victimization o The phenomenon of a person being a victim of crime more than once o 40% of Canadians reported repeat victimization Impact of Victimization  Financial loss, injury, and emotional pain and trauma o Financial – stolen and damaged property o Trauma caused by stolen/damaged things of sentimental value  Total annual cost of harm to victims in 2008 was $83 bill (including 65 bill in pain and suffering, 14 bill in tangible costs) o The direct impact of crime on victims includes harm, such as loss, injury, pain, and emotional trauma. These can be exacerbated by the experience with the police, courts, corrections and others Needs of Crime Victims  Eight core needs or rights of victims o Recognized various fundamental principles of justice and rights for victims of crime, such as the right to be informed, to receive restitution or to be present in court  Right to Recognition – victims need to be recognized  Right to information – provided with info  Right to Assistance – need to be informed of services and to have them adequately funded  Right to reparation – need help to recover financially from their crime of victimization, some of this recovery should be done through restitution from the offender, some paid in compensation from the state o Restitution from the offender – request that the offender pay the victim money as reparation for the financial or other losses caused by the crime o Compensation from the state – may apply to a provincial agency to receive lump sum or monthly payments according to provincial legislation ( from victims who suffered physical or other injuries)  Right to be protected from the accused – victims need to be protected from the accused, not just through incarceration  Right to participation and representation – need to be able to participate and to be represented in the legal process, defending interests  Right to effective polices to reduce victimization – implement those programs known to be effective in preventing the first victimization and any repetition  Right to implementation – provisions for a remedy are very limited or non existent The Origins of Victimology and International Standards  World Soceity of Victimology (WSV) was formed to allow all the various researchers, policy makers, and service providers to pursue their common interests and to exchange knowledge and experiences o Major international symposium every 3 years  Rape crisis centres  Victim services o Victim offender mediation o Victimization surveys o Victim –witness assitiscene programs Magna Carta for Victims  UN General Assembly Resolution 1985 on the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power  Shift from traditional criminal justice by recognizing that crime does damage to victims and families (not just against the state)  The Government agree
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