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Chp 9 – Psychological Perspectives on Criminality.docx

6 Pages

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Sociology 2266A/B
Lisa Lyons

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Chp 9Psychological Perspectives on CriminalityPsychological Theories of CrimeEmploy theories of personality or learning that acct for persons behaviour in specific situation Research can be characterized by two values o Assumption of offender defecit offenders who break the law have some psychological deficit that distinguishes them from normal citizens o Assumption of discriminating traits offenders distinguished from nonoffenders by high levels of impulsivenessaggression Problems with psychological approach o Little emphasis on strengths of offenders o Ignores importance of situational and envntl factors individual behaviour o Assumption ppl can be classed as criminalsnoncriminals while crime is pervasiveFarringtonmotivation to commit delinquent acts arises from desire for material goods Motivation comes from psychological variablesPsycholigcal approach defended as central discipline in study of criminal behaviour bc focus on individualCommunity psychology analyzes social problems as product of organizational characteristics of society o Problems viewed from levels of analysisA individual level in terms of individual deficitB smallgroup level problems created by problems in group functioningC organizational level orgs of society have not accomplished what they are designed to doD institutionalcommunity level problems created by institutions Emphasis on valuespolicies underlying institutional functioningEmphasis on institutionalcommunity levelPsychoanalytic TheoryAssocd w FreudPpl progress through 5 stages of development oral anal phallic latency genitalPersonality composed of 3 forces o Id biological derives inaccessibale reservoir of biological urges that strive for gratification o Ego rational screens ctrls directs impulses of id acts as reality tester responsible for dealing w reality and making decisions o Superego conscience ethical and moral dimensions of personality
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