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Chapter 6

Sociology 2267A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Social Control Theory, Differential Association, Frank Tannenbaum

Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Lisa Lyons

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Saturday, February 6, 2016
soc 2267 Ch 6- different directions in theorizing about
youth crime and delinquency
-critical perspective on crime: refers to group of theories that beings with the
assumption that structures of power and oppression are the source of crime
labelling theory
-became a major source in sociology through the work of Edwin Lemert and Howard
Becker and Frank Tannenbaum
-play and delinquency
-Tannenbaum argued that children engage in delinquent behaviour without
knowing its delinquent
-he believes the best adult response to childhood delinquency is to do nothing
and that the conflict that develops between childs friend and community is what
causes it to turn into delinquent behaviour and being defined as bad isolates the
children and makes them believe they are bad (thus labelling)
-secondary deviance
-2 types of deviance. primary and secondary
-primary is the initial act
-secondary deviance is the behaviours that a person develops as a result of
societal responses to his or her primary deviance
-hard for secondary deviant to not be viewed as deviant in community
-transition to primary to secondary deviance
1. primary deviation
2. social penalties
3. further primary deviation
4. stronger penalties and rejection
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Saturday, February 6, 2016
5. further deceptions perhaps with hostilities and resentment
6. crisis reached in the tolerance quotient, community stigmatizes deviant
7. ultimate acceptance of deviant social status and the associated role
-societal response
-crime isn't the act itself but how its done. example: murder. soldiers kill, or capital
punishment, those people are killed but the ones doing it aren't charged with
-once a persons deviance is discovered, their past actions are viewed in a new
-decarceration: moving individuals from institutional settings into community
facilities and programs
-the idea behind reintegrative shaming is that by shaming their actions then
forgiving them, they can reintegrate into society to decrease their likelihood of
future criminality
critical criminology and conflict theory
-critical criminology focuses on inequality and oppression as the sources of criminal
activity and issues in the criminal justice system
-asks questions about racism, social injustice etc
-like conflict theory except conflict theory the emphasis is on law rather than labels
-social order: basic assumptions about society as being free of disorder
-power: the ability of a person or group to force others to do what they wish
-conflict theory begin with assumption that conflict is natural state of affairs in society
and that order is only possible because of those with power
-liberal conflict theory
-Sellin referred to rules governing cultural groups as conduct norms
-he said each group has different conduct norms
-the dominant group will be the one with power and when behaviour violates the
dominant groups norms the result is criminalization
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Saturday, February 6, 2016
-Turk argued that value conflicts that are perceived as threatening to those in
authority will lead to less powerful groups being labelled delinquents
-radical conflict theory
-Marx and Engles wrote very little about crime but their work forms theoretical
basis of radical conflict theory
-capitalism is the root cause of crime in this theory
-Greenberg applied marxist ideas to crime. he argued that youth are at greater
risk of being involved in crime because of the age structure of capitalist society,
like how youth have to do the low paying jobs and have economic dependancy
-sometimes its referred to as critical criminology
-does not assume free will or determinism but a combination of both
opportunity theory
-criminal event: event involving convergence of a motivated offender, a suitable
target or targets and the absence of controls
-this view looks at crime as an event connected to situational factors. it asks why the
criminal event happened not why the person committed a crime
-theres not one explanation for crime but rather different explanations for different type
of crimes
-routine activity theory
-the convergence of 3 components is requited for a criminal event
-motivated offender
-suitable target
-absence of capable guardian
-crime should increase if all 3 of these components remained the same but there
was a change in routine.
-rational choice theory
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