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Chapter 10

Sociology 2267A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Penetanguishene, Critical Thinking, Token Economy


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Professor
Lisa Lyons
Chapter
10

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Chapter"10"–"Youth"Corrections:"Going"to"Jail"
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Correctional+services:+custodial+institutions+and+probation+services+for+youth+offenders+in+Canada++
The"number"of"youth"involved"in"the"system"can"be"measured"in"different"ways.""
- Stats"Canada"reports"rates"of"youth"in"the"system"per"10,000"youth"population"(Aged"12"–"17)"and"by"
the"number"of"youth"in"the"correctional"system.""
o The"correctional"system"are"reported"in"3"ways:""
§ average"daily"counts,""
§ monthly"average"of"daily"counts"
§ total"#"of"admissions"
- Counts:"give"an"indication"of"how"many"youths"are"in"the"system"on"any"one"day"or"in"any"one"month."
Tell"us"about"capacity"and"are"of"use"to"the"correctional"institutions"and"probation"officials"for"
administrative"and"operational"purposes""
- Admissions"refer"to"the"number"of"youth"who"have"gone"through"the"system"in"one"year"
o Moving"thru"custody""
o Receiving"programs""
o Experiencing"the"system""
- When"counts"are"higher"than"admissions,"it"suggests"youth"are"entering"the"system"faster"than"they"
are"being"released"
- Rates"reflect"youth"population"as"a"whole"
- Correctional"rates"can"be"compared"to"crime"rates""
o Understand"how"offenders"are"sanctioned""
o Compare"year"to"year"changes"between"jurisdictions""
o See"if"some"provinces"are"territories"are"more"or"less"likely"to"use"probation""
- Rates"enable"statements"about"how"many"from"the"entire"Canadian"youth"population"are"locked"up"or"
under"probation"over"given"period"of"time""
- 2010"–"less"than"1%"of"Canadian"youths"between"12"and"17"were"in"custody"or"supervision"program""
o most"likely"probation"–"91%""
o 8%"decline"from"2005""
o admission"rates"increase"with"age"–"highest"for"boys"at"17,"girls"at"16""
o boys"account"for"more"than"¾"of"admissions""
- any"given"day"in"2010"–"14800"youths"in"the"youth"system"–"79"per"100k""
Remand:"to"hold"an"accused"in"a"prison"or"detention"facility"prior"to"court"appearance"or"trial,"or"while"
awaiting"sentence;"sometimes"also"referred"to"as"pretrial"detention"
- more"youth"in"remand"56%""
- majority"of"youth"on"probation"–"82%""
- disproportionate"admissions"for"aboriginal"youth""
o 6%"of"youth"population,"26%"of"overall"admissions"to"corrections""
§ 24%"of"boys"admissions""
§ 34%"of"girls"admissions""
- 2008"–"aboriginal"youth"36%"of"sentenced"admissions"to"custody""
o 24%"of"admissions"to"probation"
o 27%"of"admissions"to"remand""
§ girls"more"overrep"
44%"of"girls"sentenced""
boys"34%""
o of"youth"held"in"remand"any"given"day"–"21%"were"native""

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- 2008"–"16k"youth"under"supervision"in"community"order""
o girls"younger"than"boys"–"31%"vs"22%"
o aboriginal"youth"overrep"
- Avg."daily"count"of"youth"in"custody"is"1,505"
- Costs"avg."80,000"a"year"to"keep"youth"in"custody"
o Costs"depend"on"province"and"facility"security"level""
o Community"based"programming"costs"8-10k"per"year""
o Low"security"facilities"55k"–"70k,"
o High"security"facilities"–70k"–"120k""
o Cost"is"higher"in"Ontario"–"low"-"93k"per"year,"high"–"126k""
- Supervising"young"offender"in"community"–"probation"–"cheaper""
o 600"–"700"dollars"per"person""
- leschied"and"Cunningham"–"community"based"program,"intensive"family"intervention"and"support"for"
380"youth"
o 6k"–"7k"per"person""
Historical+foundations+
Foundation"for"the"practice"of"institutionalizing"Canadian"Youth"separately"was"laid"in"1857"with"the"passing"of"
the"act+for+Establishing+Prisons+for+Young+Offenders+
- first"institution"–"isle"de"noix"–"1858""
- second"–"penetanguishene"1859"–"only"boys"
- Intention"was"to"provide"better"environment"for"youth"than"would"be"found"in"adult"jails"
- Fell"short"of"expectations"–"became"places"of"work"and"punishment""
FROM%REFORMATORIES%TO%INDUSTRIAL%SCHOOLS%
Langmuir"was"appointed"Ontario’s"first"inspector"of"Prisons,"asylums"and"public"charities"–"1867""
- Campaign"to"change"correctional"philosophy"and"policy"regarding"youth"
- Changed"penetanguisine"from"reformatory"prison"to"reformatory"for"boys""
- Goal"to"foster"the"education,"industrial"training"and"moral"reclamation"of"juvenile"delinquents"
Efforts"underway"across"country"to"provide"institutions"that"would"serve"as"places"pf"reform"for"all"children"in"
need"
- Poor"and"neglected,"delinquent""
- They"would"be"prevented"from"becoming"criminals"if"they"received"care"and"education"and"were"
taught"a"trade"through"industrial"training"
o Halifax"was"first"in"developing"a"institution"that"provided"these"things"
o 1864"–"Halifax"protestant"industrial"school""
o st"patricks"industrial"school"–"1865""
- By"1927"there"were"24"industrial"schools"across"Canada""
§ 9"in"QB""
§ 5"in"ON""
§ 4"in"NS""
§ 2"In"BC""
§ 2"in"MB""
§ 1"each"–"SK"ad"NB""
o Similar"routines;"half"a"day"in"school,"half"a"day"learning"a"trade"
o Boys"typically"received"training"in"carpentry,"shoemaking,"cooking"and"baking"and"farm/garden"
work."Girls"were"taught"sewing,"knitting,"crocheting,"dressmaking,"shoemaking"and"domestic"
science"

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TRAINING+SCHOOLS:+common"term"for"juvenile"correctional"institutions"before"the"intro"of"YOA""
- Industrial"training"schools"became"training"schools"at"turn"of"20th"century"
- More"were"built"–"use"increased""
- Use"rose"from"8.5"–"14.4%"between"1922"and"1949""
o Declined"after""
o Dropped"to"8%"in"1968""
o 1973"–"custody"sentence"made"2.3%"of"convictions""
- major"reason"for"drop"–"provinces"restricted"their"use""
o 1970"–"BC"got"rid"of"secure"custody""
§ 1977"–"brought"it"back"for"hard-core"offences"–"protection"of"society""
o Ontario"–"only"youth"who"committed"an"offence"for"which"adult"would"be"sentenced"to"prison"
could"be"sentenced"to"custody""
- Development"of"group"homes"and"community"programs"during"70s"–"further"decrease"in"use"of"
training"schools""
YOUTH+CENTRES+
Two"levels"of"custody"established"with"yoa:"secure"and"open,"and"the"court"required"to"set"the"level"of"custody"
at"sentencing"
- Secure:"a"form"of"custody"under"the"YOA"that"required"more"restrictions"on"movement,"both"within"
and"outside"an"institution,"than"was"required"for"open"security"
- Open:"a"form"of"custody"under"the"YOA"that"required"fewer"restrictions"on"movement,"both"within"and"
outside"an"institution"that"was"required"for"secure"custody"
- Sentenced"for"murder"charge"in"youth"court"–"set"period"of"community"supervision"was"required"after"
youth"released"from"custody""
- Court"chose"level"of"custody,"but"provs"decided"which"facilities"were"secure"or"open"-""Considerable"
variation"in"facilities"across"the"country"
o In"Newfoundland"–"there"was"the"Department"of"Social"Services"Division"of"Youth"Corrections"
§ responsible"for"carrying"out"the"sentence"of"the"court""
§ the"two"divisions:""
one"for"alternative"measures,"and"open"custodies,"non"custodial"–"Community"
Correctional""
o open"custody"facilities"consisted"of""
§ 8"group"homes""
§ 3"assessment"centers"and"foster"homes""
one"for"secure"custody"–"Secure"custody"and"remand"services""
o young"center"in"whitbourne""
o Pleasantville"in"st"johns""
o 1995"–"cornerbrook""
- In"BC"youth"institutions"and"young"offender"programs"–"probation"and"AM"-""came"under"the"
jurisdiction"of"the"Ministry"for"Children"and"Families,"had"5"secure"custody"centres"and"7"open"centres"
o Most"in"Vancouver""
o 3"community"based"residential"centers""
- In"Ontario"and"Nova"Scotia"there"was"a"split"jurisdiction"under"the"YOA."12"-15"year"olds"being"
processed"differently"from"16-17"year"olds""
o "(12-15)–"youth"system""
§ Family"court"–"same"for"JDA""
o "(16-17)–"adults"system""
§ Adult"court"under"yoa"restrictions""
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