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Chapter 7-2267

chapter 7- 2267

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Western University
Sociology 2267A/B
Gillian Mandich

Introduction Causal factors throughout Canadian history and youth gangs and peer influences have been linked to crime and delinquency for at least 100 years th Schools were thought of during 19 as solution to delinquency Hirschi’s control theory make intuitive sense Children not attached to parents will be more delinquent than those who are attached Family Residents complained that communities plagued by fearless, disrespectful young people and derelict parents are breeding criminals poisoning themselves Most research examining relationship between family factors and youth crime has looked at either the structure of the family Studies taken microscopic perspective Examine family structures as broken or whether both parents are working Nuclear family is the norm Family relationship studies are not as tied to these assumptions and look at such things as parenting skills, parenting skills, parental supervision of children, parenting styles and young peoples attachments to parents Microscopic perspective: in sociology and criminology, refers to theoretical approaches that focus on individuals and behavior in small social settings rather than in the context of larger social structures Family structure: how families are structured in terms of living arrangements (e.g. a traditional nuclear family or single parent family) Family Structures Broken homes hypothesis comes from the idea that one parent mainly women headed are considerably poorer Less support and supervision for children, missing one adult Idea that males need a father, females need a mother Hetherington identified three major affects of divorced women that cold be passed onto their children: Single mothers are overburdened from working in the labor force and caring for children Single mothers experience considerable financial stress in that female-headed households earn less than half the income earned in male-headed households Single mothers experience social isolation which means they have fewer social and emotional supports Doesn’t mean this causes delinquent just means it may contribute Related belief that mothers who work away from home in a two parent home may have delinquent children Overburdened and cannot provide support Melville said when working mothers derive satisfaction from their employment and do not feel guilty about its effects they are likely to perform the mothers role at least as well as non working women Wells found that The relationship between broken homes and delinquency is weak at best That this relationship has been empirically demonstrated consistently for more than 50 years That the relationship is stronger for minor crimes than for serious ones To the extent that there are negative effects on children, these effects are greater for boys and girls Major problem in family structures 70-80s is that it did not incorporate a comparison group of families that weren’t divorced Parenting Negative relationships have been identified as significant risk factors for youth criminality Baumrind suggested two most important aspects of parenting behavior: The extent to which parents are supportive of the children’s needs The extent to which parents are demanding of appropriate behavior from their children Types of parents: Authoritative: supportive and demanding Set standards Have high expectations Explain disciplinary matters with children Authoritarian: rejecting and demanding Value obedient and conformity Restrict autonomy Favor punitive disciplinary measures Indulgent: supportive and not demanding Allow freedom opposed to control See themselves as resources for children Indifferent: rejecting and not demanding Spend little time with their children Know little about their activities Tend to put own needs above children’s Sometimes neglect Delinquent behavior most likely found among indifferent parents Children show far more aggressive behavior Parenting styles far more important than income or structure Internal family relationships important Power control theory looks at how structural power relations from the workplace are reflected in control mechanisms in the home Found that family control structures influenced by whether both parents work and whether in their employment they occupy positions of authority and power Delinquency are based on whether family structures patriarchal or egalitarian Delinquents tend to come from more patriarchal family structure From control theory perspective: Children who are not attached to their parents will have higher rates of delinquency The Meaning of Family Attachment This attachment reduced delinquency Measured as affect or emotional ties rather than supervision Positive emotional attachment tend to be more effective in reducing delinquency Criminalize: a term that differentiates between referring to a person as a criminal and the process whereby the individuals come to be viewed as criminal Etiological: having to do with cause or origin Consequences of Bad Family Relationships Leblanc states marital variables have direct links to delinquent behavior Children exposed to fighting more likely to be aggressive Girls in custody particularly likely to have experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, and a family history of violence Childhood victimization increases risk of violent offending Sexual offenders more likely to have witnessed family violence Only childhood sexual abuse predictor for prostitution for non-aboriginal youth Cannot understand girls and crime without taking into consideration status of girls in a patriarchal society The Bad Seed and Invisible Victims Said to be caused by bad parenting Tough love parenting style solution for parents with problem children Faulty parenting paradigm- belief that both parents and children should be held accountable for the misdeeds of the young Pressure to increase parental responsibility during YOA reform process Public problematizes stranger violence not exactly parental School School failure seen as major problem linked to delinquent behavior 1980s school at sites for crime Youth Crime as an Educational Issue Cohen’s subcultural theory and control theory suggest school is a determinant of delinquent behavior In his version of strain theory indicated that the delinquent subculture stemmed from reaction formation wherein lower and working class youth responded to the frustrations they experienced in a middle class school system Control theory states that low levels of school commitment will lead to delinquency School Commitment Lack of school commitment linked to early onset of criminal behavior Low levels of commitment also linked to violent crimes No difference between boys and girls Colvin and Pauly argued that coercive control in working class families combine with similar controls in schools to increase chance of failure among working class youth in the school system Individual Failures IQ Criminality as a function of feeblemindedness are modern claims of low IQ Non offenders IQ generally 10 points higher Hirschi argues IQ is indirectly linked to crime Tracking One of the consequences of IQ is that schools streamline or track students into different types of classes Delinquency higher in special Ed programs Delinquency more correlated with tracking than gender and social class African Americans are two times more likely to be tracked Tracking can be done by authoritative figures Tracking: school policies that group and stream students into different programs based on their performance on standardized tests Social class: generally refers to ones economic position or standing in a particular social structure or society Disabilities Higher rates of delinquency with children with LD and ADHD High school drop out rates Suggest that it is school and policies that contribute to crime School Failures (school policy/organization) another way of looking at tracking, IQ testing, disabilities, and their impact on delinquency is to consider them as issues created by the organization of the school and the educational system rather than as factors related to the young offender 19080s- “problems of the youth” school was part of problem Copperman said
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